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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Sabre Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware001-3642220-8647322
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Commission File Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3150 Sabre Drive
Southlake, TX 76092
(Address, including zip code, of principal executive offices)
(682) 605-1000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueSABRThe NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(Title of class)(Trading symbol)(Name of exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” "smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    Yes     No 
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.  Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). Yes    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes     No  
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates, as of June 30,2023, was $785,013,999. As of February 8, 2024, there were 379,480,874 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2024 annual meeting of stockholders to be held on April 24, 2024, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.



Table of Contents
 
  Page
  
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
  
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
  
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
   
  
Item 15.
Item 16.




FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7, contains information that may constitute forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements relate to expectations, beliefs, projections, future plans and strategies, anticipated events or trends and similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts, such as statements regarding our future financial condition or results of operations, our prospects and strategies for future growth, the development and introduction of new products, and the implementation of our strategies. In many cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “expects,” "intends," "focus," "believes," "will," "outlook," "may," “predicts,” “vision,” “potential,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” "should,” “plans,” “could,” “likely,” “commit,” “guidance,” “incremental,” “preliminary,” “forecast,” “continue,” “strategy,” “confidence,” “momentum,” “estimate,” “objective,” “project,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. The forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and assumptions regarding our business, the economy and other future conditions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and changes in circumstances that may cause events or our actual activities or results to differ significantly from those expressed in any forward-looking statement. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future events, results, actions, levels of activity, performance or achievements. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect circumstances or events after the date they are made. A number of important factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, those factors described in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in Part I, Item 7 “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Factors Affecting Our Results” and elsewhere in this Annual Report.
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, references to “Sabre,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “ours” and “us” refer to Sabre Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires.
PART I
ITEM 1.        BUSINESS
Overview
Sabre Corporation is a Delaware corporation formed in December 2006. On March 30, 2007, Sabre Corporation acquired Sabre Holdings Corporation (“Sabre Holdings”). Sabre Holdings is the sole direct subsidiary of Sabre Corporation. Sabre GLBL Inc. (“Sabre GLBL”) is the principal operating subsidiary and sole direct subsidiary of Sabre Holdings. Sabre GLBL or its direct or indirect subsidiaries conduct all of our businesses. Our principal executive offices are located at 3150 Sabre Drive, Southlake, Texas 76092.
At Sabre, we make travel happen. Our vision is to be one of the most valued global technology partners in travel. We are committed to helping our customers take on the biggest opportunities and solve the most complex challenges in our industry. We connect the world’s leading travel suppliers, including airlines, hotels, car rental brands, rail carriers, cruise lines and tour operators, with travel buyers in a comprehensive travel marketplace. We also offer travel suppliers an extensive suite of leading software solutions, ranging from airline and hotel reservations systems to solutions that manage day-to-day hotel operations. We are committed to helping customers operate more efficiently, drive revenue and offer personalized traveler experiences with next-generation technology solutions.
Business Segments and Products
We operate our business and present our results through two business segments: (i) Travel Solutions, our global travel solutions for travel suppliers and travel buyers, including a broad portfolio of software technology products and solutions for airlines, and (ii) Hospitality Solutions, an extensive suite of leading software solutions for hoteliers. Financial information about our business segments and geographic areas is provided in Note 19. Segment Information, to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Travel Solutions
Our Travel Solutions business provides global travel solutions for travel suppliers and travel buyers through a business-to-business travel marketplace consisting of our global distribution network and a broad set of solutions that integrate with our distribution platform to add value for travel suppliers and travel buyers. Our distribution business facilitates travel by efficiently bringing together travel content such as inventory, prices and availability from a broad array of travel suppliers, including airlines, hotels, car rental brands, rail carriers, cruise lines and tour operators, with a large network of travel buyers, including online travel agencies (“OTAs”), offline travel agencies, travel management companies (“TMCs”), and corporate travel departments.
Additionally, our Travel Solutions business offers a broad portfolio of software technology products and solutions, through software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) and hosted delivery model, to airlines and other travel suppliers and provides industry-leading and comprehensive software solutions that help our customers better market, sell, serve and operate. Our product offerings include reservation systems for full-cost and low-cost carriers, commercial and operations products, agency solutions and data-
1


driven intelligence solutions. Our reservation systems bring together intelligent decision support solutions that enable end-to-end retailing. Our commercial and operations products offer services to our customers to enable them to better use our products and help optimize their commercial and operations platforms.
Hospitality Solutions
Our Hospitality Solutions business provides software and solutions, through SaaS and hosted delivery models, to hoteliers around the world. Our SaaS solutions empower hotels and hotel chains to manage pricing, reservations, and retail offerings across thousands of distribution channels while improving guest experience throughout the traveler journey. We serve over 42,000 properties in over 175 countries.
Growth Strategy
At Sabre, we are a technology company focused on four strategic areas: generating positive free cash flow, achieving sustainable long-term growth, driving innovation and enhancing our value propositions, and the continued modernization of our technology. Our growth strategy includes enhancing relationships with customers by promoting the benefits to them and travelers of adopting additional products and services, adapting those products to the changing needs of the travel ecosphere, including integrating new distribution capability (“NDC”), and pricing them in ways that align with our customers, growing our customer base by continuing to innovate our products, adding desirable content, and aligning our technology and personnel to best highlight our value proposition globally and expanding opportunities by extending our product lines into closely related areas of travel where our customer relationships can efficiently drive adoption.
Technology and Operations
Our technology strategy is focused on achieving operational stability, reliability, resiliency, security and performance at an efficient overall cost while continuing to innovate and create incremental value for our customers. Significant investment has gone into implementing a more unified technical architecture with an emphasis on standardization, simplicity, efficiency, security, and scalability. We invest heavily in software development, delivery, and operational support capabilities and seek to provide best in class products for our customers. We operate standardized infrastructure in our cloud computing environments across hardware, operating systems, databases, and other key enabling technologies to minimize costs on non-differentiators. We expect to continue to make significant investments in our information technology infrastructure to modernize our architecture, drive efficiency and quality in development, lower recurring technology costs, further enhance the stability and security of our network, comply with data privacy and accessibility regulations, and complete our shift to service-enabled and cloud-based solutions. For this reason, we have included Technology costs as a separate category of cost within our consolidated financial statements and notes contained in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Over the last several years, our architecture has evolved from mainframe-based transaction processing to more secure, primarily cloud-based distributed processing. A variety of products and services run on this technology infrastructure: high-volume air and hotel shopping systems; sales and support applications for airlines, hotels, and travel agencies; airline and hotel inventory management and operational support systems; artificial intelligence ("AI")-powered analytics and decision support systems; and web services that provide automated interfaces for retailing, distribution, and fulfillment of travel-related products and services. The flexibility and scale of our cloud-based technology infrastructure allow us to quickly deliver a broad variety of SaaS solutions and evolve these solutions to meet the changing needs of the travel industry.
Customers
Travel Solutions customers consist of travel suppliers, including airlines, hotels and other lodging providers, car rental brands, rail carriers, cruise lines, tour operators, attractions and services; a large network of travel buyers, including OTAs, offline travel agencies, TMCs and corporate travel departments; and airports, governments and tourism boards. Airlines served by Travel Solutions vary in size and are located in every region of the world, and include hybrid carriers and low-cost carriers ("LCCs") (collectively, “LCC/hybrids”), global network carriers and regional network carriers. Our airline and agency customers are in various phases of adopting NDC strategies, and those strategies vary by customer. Hospitality Solutions has a global customer base of over 42,000 hotel properties of all sizes.
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Sources of Revenue
Transactions—Our Travel Solutions business generates distribution revenue for bookings made through our global distribution system ("GDS") (e.g., air, car and hotel bookings) and through our partners and generally we are paid directly by the travel supplier. A transaction occurs when a travel agency or corporate travel department books or reserves a travel supplier’s product using our GDS, for which we receive a fee. Transaction fees include, but are not limited to, transaction fees paid by travel suppliers for selling their inventory through our GDS and fees paid by travel agency subscribers related to their use of certain solutions integrated with our GDS. We receive revenue from the travel supplier and the travel agency according to the commercial arrangement with each.
SaaS and Hosted—We generate Travel Solutions' IT Solutions revenue and Hospitality Solutions revenue through upfront solution implementation fees and recurring usage-based fees for the use of our software solutions hosted on secure platforms or deployed via SaaS. We maintain our SaaS and hosted software and manage the related infrastructure with the assistance of third-party providers. We collect the implementation fees and recurring usage-based fees pursuant to contracts with terms that typically range between three and ten years and generally include minimum annual volume requirements.
Software Licensing—We generate Travel Solutions' IT Solutions revenue from fees for the on-site installation and use of our software products. Many contracts under this model generate additional revenue for the maintenance of the software product.
Professional Service Fees—We generate Travel Solutions' IT Solutions revenue and Hospitality Solutions revenue through offerings that utilize the SaaS and hosted revenue model which are sometimes sold as part of multiple performance obligation arrangements for which we also provide professional services, including consulting services. Our professional services are primarily focused on helping customers achieve better utilization of and return on their software investment. Often, we provide these services during the implementation phase of our SaaS solutions.
Media and Retailing—We generate Hospitality Solutions revenue from customers that advertise their website or booking engine on digital marketing channels. We also generate Hospitality Solutions revenue through retailing offerings and are typically paid a portion of the value of each transaction according to commercial arrangements.
Competition
We operate in highly competitive markets. Travel Solutions competes with several other regional and global travel marketplace providers, including other GDSs, local distribution systems and travel marketplace providers primarily owned by airlines or government entities, as well as with direct distribution by travel suppliers. In addition to other GDSs and direct distributors, there are a number of other competitors in the travel distribution marketplace, including new entrants in the travel space, that offer metasearch capabilities that direct shoppers to supplier websites and/or OTAs, third party aggregators and peer-to-peer options for travel services. Travel Solutions also competes with a variety of providers in a rapidly evolving marketplace which includes global and regional IT providers, various specialists in selected product areas, service providers and airlines that develop their own in-house technology. Hospitality Solutions operates in a dynamic marketplace that includes large global players, significant new entrants and hotels that develop their own in-house technology.
Intellectual Property
We use software, business processes and proprietary information to carry out our business. These assets and related intellectual property rights are significant assets of our business. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark laws, confidentiality procedures, and contractual provisions to protect these assets and we license software and other intellectual property both to and from third parties. We may seek patent protection on technology, software and business processes relating to our business, and our software and related documentation may also be protected under trade secret and copyright laws where applicable. We may also benefit from both statutory and common law protection of our trademarks.
Although we rely heavily on our brands, associated trademarks, and domain names, we do not believe that our business is dependent on any single item of intellectual property, or that any single item of intellectual property is material to the operation of our business. However, since we consider trademarks to be a valuable asset of our business, we maintain our trademark portfolio throughout the world by filing trademark applications with the relevant trademark offices, renewing appropriate registrations and regularly monitoring potential infringement of our trademarks in certain key markets.
Government Regulation
We are subject to or affected by international, federal, state and local laws, regulations and policies, which are constantly subject to change. These laws, regulations and policies include regulations applicable to the GDS in the European Union (“EU”), Canada, the United States and other locations.
We are subject to the application of data protection and privacy regulations in many of the U.S. states and countries in which we operate, including the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") in the EU. See "Risk Factors—Our collection, processing, storage, use and transmission of personal data could give rise to liabilities as a result of governmental regulation, conflicting legal requirements, differing views on data privacy, or security incidents."
We are also subject to prohibitions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (the “OFAC rules”) and other similar global prohibitions, as applicable. The OFAC rules prohibit U.S. persons from engaging in financial transactions with or
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relating to the prohibited individual, entity or country, require the blocking of assets in which the individual, entity or country has an interest, and prohibit transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons) to such individual, entity or country.
Our businesses may also be subject to legislation and regulations affecting issues such as: trade sanctions, exports of technology, antitrust, anticorruption, telecommunications, artificial intelligence, and e-commerce. These regulations may vary among jurisdictions. For example, Russia has adopted legislation and related regulations, effective October 30, 2022, that require activities related to the development, creation and operation of automated information systems for processing domestic air transportation within the Russian Federation to be owned and operated by Russian residents or legal entities with no updates from or connection with systems abroad. This legislation and these regulations have prohibited our ability to provide these services in Russia, which has negatively impacted, and is expected to continue to negatively impact, our revenue and results.
See “Risk Factors—Any failure to comply with regulations or any changes in such regulations governing our businesses could adversely affect us.”
Seasonality
The travel industry is seasonal in nature. Travel bookings and the revenue we derive from those bookings, are typically seasonally strong in the first and third quarters, but decline significantly each year in the fourth quarter, primarily in December. We recognize air-related revenue at the date of booking, and because customers generally book their November and December holiday leisure-related travel earlier in the year and business-related travel declines during the holiday season, revenue resulting from bookings is typically lower in the fourth quarter. Similarly, we experience seasonality in our cash flow from operations with the first quarter lower in collections, reflecting the revenue generated in December, and higher cash outflows with annual compensation and incentive consideration payments, for the previous year.
Human Capital
We maintain a strategic framework that defines areas of focus for our culture and talent and highlights how we enable our people to execute the plans and priorities for our technology, product, financial and customer strategies.
Our People—In 2023, we implemented a cost reduction plan that reduced our workforce by 17% compared to the prior year, impacting our human capital metrics for the year ended December 31, 2023. We have not experienced any work stoppages and consider our relations with our employees to be good. As of December 31, 2023, we had 6,232 employees worldwide, consisting of the following:
No of Employees% of Total
United States1,73628 %
APAC1,76528 %
Europe1,62926 %
All Other (1)
1,10218 %
Total6,232100 %
(1) Includes Canada, Mexico, Latin America, Middle East, and Africa.
Talent Acquisition, Development and Retention—Through our long operating history and experience with technological innovation, we appreciate the importance of retention, growth and development of our employees. We seek to set compensation at competitive levels that help enable us to hire, incentivize, and retain high-caliber employees. We have launched our Leadership Framework to support our employees and cultivate talent. This framework includes frequent one-on-one conversations, regular team meetings, meaningful performance feedback, timely recognition and supportive career development. Our formal and informal reward, recognition and acknowledgement programs encourage employees to recognize peers, teams and departments to honor their champions and help promote satisfaction and engagement. To assist in retaining key talent, we offer compensation programs to certain key employees, such as long-term performance-based cash incentive awards, performance-based restricted stock unit awards, time-based restricted stock unit awards, and other awards as appropriate. We monitor and evaluate various turnover and attrition metrics throughout our management teams.
Diversity and InclusionWith 61 offices around the globe, we believe that diversity and inclusion are at the core of our success and that the different backgrounds, experiences, perspectives, and ideas of our employees are critical to spur innovation, drive growth and sustain competitive advantage in our industry. We maintain an Inclusion and Diversity Council to help define a globally consistent approach to inclusion and diversity.
Health and Wellness—The health and safety of our team members is of the utmost importance. In addition to core health and welfare benefits, our wellness program offers resources to promote physical, emotional, and mental well-being. We maintain certain assistance programs to continue to support the well-being of our team members, including team members that operate in a remote working environment. Additionally, to help ensure the safety and wellness of our employees, we have provided robust parental leave programs and enhanced our personal time off benefits, and maintain a work-from-anywhere program that allows our employees additional flexibility in work arrangements and increased opportunities to work remotely. Recently, for our US-based employees, we provided four additional paid holidays, which also align with our focus on inclusion.
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Corporate Responsibility—We invest globally in our communities by encouraging employee volunteerism on company time through one paid day off per quarter for community volunteering. Our employees have donated a significant number of volunteer hours to support our community-oriented and philanthropic culture.
Available Information
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and under these requirements, we file reports, proxy and information statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and other information to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available through the investor relations section of our website at investors.sabre.com. Reports are available free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We may use our website, our LinkedIn account and our X (formerly Twitter) account (@Sabre_Corp) as additional means of disclosing information to the public. The information disclosed through those channels may be considered to be material and may not be otherwise disseminated by us, so we encourage investors to review our website, LinkedIn and X account. The contents of our website or social media channels referenced herein are not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
The following risk factors may be important to understanding any statement in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or elsewhere. Our business, financial condition and operating results can be affected by a number of factors, whether currently known or unknown, including but not limited to those described below. Any one or more of these factors could directly or indirectly cause our actual results of operations and financial condition to vary materially from past or anticipated future results of operations and financial condition. Any of these factors, in whole or in part, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and stock price.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our revenue is highly dependent on transaction volumes in the global travel industry, particularly air travel transaction volumes.
Our Travel Solutions and Hospitality Solutions revenue is largely tied to travel suppliers’ transaction volumes rather than to their unit pricing for an airplane ticket, hotel room or other travel products. This revenue is generally not contractually committed to recur annually under our agreements with our travel suppliers. As a result, our revenue is highly dependent on the global travel industry, particularly air travel from which we derive a substantial amount of our revenue, and correlates with global travel, tourism and transportation transaction volumes. Our revenue is therefore highly susceptible to declines in or disruptions to leisure and business travel that may be caused by factors entirely out of our control, and therefore may not recur if these declines or disruptions occur.
Various factors have caused, and may in the future cause, temporary or sustained disruption to leisure and business travel. The impact these disruptions have had, and would in the future have on our business depends on the magnitude and duration of such disruption. These factors include, among others: (1) general and local economic conditions, including recessions and inflationary pressures; (2) financial instability of travel suppliers and the impact of any fundamental corporate changes to such travel suppliers, such as airline bankruptcies, consolidations, or suspensions of service on the cost and availability of travel content; (3) factors that affect demand for travel such as outbreaks of contagious diseases, including COVID-19, influenza, Zika, Ebola and the MERS virus, increases in fuel prices, government shutdowns, changing attitudes towards the environmental costs of travel, safety concerns and movements toward remote working environments and changes in business practices; (4) political events like acts or threats of terrorism, hostilities, war and political unrest; (5) inclement weather, natural or man-made disasters and the effects of climate change; and (6) factors that affect supply of travel, such as travel restrictions, regulatory actions, aircraft groundings, or changes to regulations governing airlines and the travel industry, like government sanctions that do or would prohibit doing business with certain state-owned travel suppliers, work stoppages or labor unrest at any of the major airlines, hotels or airports. In addition, sustained disruptions from COVID-19 negatively impacted our business, and the extent of our recovery following these disruptions is uncertain. While we have experienced a gradual recovery in our primary metrics over the past few years, we cannot predict the long-term effects of the pandemic on our business or the travel industry as a whole. If our business or the travel industry is fundamentally changed by the COVID-19 outbreak in ways that are detrimental to our operating model, our business may continue to be adversely affected even as the broader global economy or the travel industry recovers. Developments that could affect the extent of any future recovery include, but are not limited to, the effect of changes in hiring levels and remote working arrangements; the speed and extent of the recovery across the broader travel ecosystem; and short- and long-term changes in travel patterns, including business or long-haul travel. Societal norms with respect to travel may change permanently in ways that cannot be predicted and that can change the travel industry in a manner adverse to our business.
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Our ability to recruit, train and retain employees, including our key executive officers and technical employees, is critical to our results of operations and future growth.
Our continued ability to compete effectively depends on our ability to recruit new employees and retain and motivate existing employees, particularly professionals with experience in our industry, information technology and systems, as well as our key executive officers. For example, the specialized skills we require can be difficult and time-consuming to acquire and are often in short supply. There is high demand and competition for well-qualified employees on a global basis, such as software engineers, developers and other technology professionals with specialized knowledge in software development, especially expertise in certain programming languages. This competition affects both our ability to retain key employees and to hire new ones. Similarly, uncertainty in the global political environment may adversely affect our ability to hire and retain key employees. Any of our employees may choose to terminate their employment with us at any time, and a lengthy period of time is required to hire and train replacement employees when such skilled individuals leave the company. Furthermore, changes in our employee population, including our executive team, could impact our results of operations and growth. If we fail to attract well-qualified employees or to retain or motivate existing employees, our business could be materially hindered by, for example, a delay in our ability to deliver products and services under contract, bring new products and services to market or respond swiftly to customer demands or new offerings from competitors.
In the second quarter of 2023, we announced and began to implement a cost reduction plan designed to reposition our business and to structurally reduce our cost base. Our cost reduction plan may be disruptive to our operations, and our workforce reductions could yield unanticipated consequences, such as attrition beyond planned workforce reductions, increased difficulties in our day-to-day operations and reduced employee morale. If employees who were not affected by the reduction in force seek alternate employment, this could result in the need for contract support at unplanned additional expense or harm our productivity. Our workforce reductions could also harm our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel. In addition, we may not realize the anticipated benefits, savings and improvements from our cost reduction efforts due to unforeseen difficulties, delays or unexpected costs.
We operate in highly competitive, evolving markets, and if we do not continue to innovate and evolve, our business operations and competitiveness may be harmed.
Travel technology is rapidly evolving as travel suppliers seek new or improved means of accessing their customers and increasing value. We must continue to innovate and evolve our current and future offerings to respond to the changing needs of travel suppliers and meet intense competition. We also face increasing competition as suppliers seek IT solutions that provide the same traveler experience across all channels of distribution, whether indirectly through the GDS or directly through other channels. As travel suppliers adopt innovative solutions that function across channels, our operating results could suffer if we do not foresee the need for new products or services to meet competition either for GDS or for other distribution IT solutions.
Adapting to new technological and marketplace developments may require substantial expenditures and lead time and we cannot guarantee that projected future increases in business volume will actually materialize. We may experience difficulties that could delay or prevent the successful development, marketing and implementation of enhancements, upgrades and additions. Moreover, we may fail to maintain, upgrade or introduce new products, services, technologies and systems as quickly as our competitors or in a cost-effective manner. For example, we must constantly update our products with new capabilities to adapt to the changing technological and regulatory environment and customer needs. However, this process can be costly and time-consuming, and our efforts may not be successful as compared to our competitors. Those that we do develop may not achieve acceptance in the marketplace sufficient to generate material revenue or may be rendered obsolete or non-competitive by our competitors’ offerings.
In addition, our competitors are constantly evolving, including increasing their product and service offerings through organic research and development or through strategic acquisitions. As a result, we must continue to invest significant resources in order to continually improve the speed, accuracy and comprehensiveness of our services and we have made and may in the future be required to make changes to our technology platforms or increase our investment in technology, increase marketing, adjust prices or business models, acquire or invest in new lines of business and take other actions, which has affected and in the future could affect our financial performance and liquidity.
We depend upon the use of sophisticated information technology and systems. Our competitiveness and future results depend on our ability to maintain and make timely and cost-effective enhancements, upgrades and additions to our products, services, technologies and systems in response to new technological developments, industry standards, government regulations, and trends and customer requirements. As another example, migration of our enterprise applications and platforms to other hosting environments has caused us and will continue to cause us to incur substantial costs, and has resulted in and could in the future result in instability and business interruptions, which could materially harm our business.
Our Travel Solutions business is exposed to pricing pressure from travel suppliers.
Travel suppliers continue to look for ways to decrease their costs and to increase their control over distribution. For example, consolidation in the airline industry, the growth of LCC/hybrids and macroeconomic factors, among other things, have driven some airlines to negotiate for lower fees during contract renegotiations, thereby exerting increased pricing pressure on our Travel Solutions business, which, in turn, negatively affects our revenues and margins. In addition, travel suppliers’ use of multiple distribution channels may also adversely affect our contract renegotiations with these suppliers and negatively impact our revenue. Furthermore, as we attempt to renegotiate new GDS agreements with our travel suppliers, they may withhold some or all of their content (fares and associated economic terms) for distribution exclusively through their direct distribution channels
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(for example, the relevant airline’s website) or offer travelers more attractive terms for content available through those direct channels after their contracts expire. As a result of these sources of negotiating pressure, we may have to decrease our prices to retain their business. If we are unable to renew our contracts with these travel suppliers on similar economic terms or at all, or if our ability to provide this content is similarly impeded, this would also adversely affect the value of our Travel Solutions business as a marketplace due to our more limited content.
Our travel supplier customers may experience financial instability or consolidation, pursue cost reductions, change their distribution model or undergo other changes.
We generate the majority of our revenue and accounts receivable from airlines. We also derive revenue from hotels, car rental brands, rail carriers, cruise lines, tour operators and other suppliers in the travel and tourism industries. Adverse changes in any of these relationships or the inability to enter into new relationships could negatively impact the demand for and competitiveness of our travel products and services. For example, a lack of liquidity in the capital markets or weak economic performance may cause our travel suppliers to increase the time they take to pay, or to default, on their payment obligations, which could lead to a higher provision for expected credit losses and negatively affect our results. Any large-scale bankruptcy or other insolvency proceeding of an airline or hospitality supplier could subject our agreements with that customer to rejection or early termination, and, if applicable, result in asset impairments which could be significant. Similarly, any suspension or cessation of operations of an airline or hospitality supplier could negatively affect our results. Because we generally do not require security or collateral from our customers as a condition of sale, our revenues may be subject to credit risk more generally.
Furthermore, supplier consolidation, particularly in the airline industry, could harm our business. Our Travel Solutions business depends on a relatively small number of airlines for a substantial portion of its revenue, and all of our businesses are highly dependent on airline ticket volumes. Consolidation among airlines could result in the loss of an existing customer and the related fee revenue, decreased airline ticket volumes due to capacity restrictions implemented concurrently with the consolidation, and increased airline concentration and bargaining power to negotiate lower transaction fees. See “—Our Travel Solutions business is exposed to pricing pressure from travel suppliers.”
Our collection, processing, storage, use and transmission of personal data could give rise to liabilities as a result of governmental regulation, conflicting legal requirements, differing views on data privacy, or security incidents.
We collect, process, store, use and transmit a large volume of personal data on a daily basis, including, for example, to process travel transactions for our customers and to deliver other travel-related products and services. Personal data is increasingly subject to legal and regulatory protections around the world, which vary widely in approach and which possibly conflict with one another. In recent years, for example, U.S. legislators and regulatory agencies, such as the Federal Trade Commission, as well as U.S. states, have increased their focus on protecting personal data by law and regulation, and have increased enforcement actions for violations of privacy and data protection requirements. The GDPR, a data protection law adopted by the European Commission, and various other country-specific and U.S. state data protection laws have gone into effect or are scheduled to go into effect. These and other data protection laws and regulations are intended to protect the privacy and security of personal data, including credit card information that is collected, processed and transmitted in or from the relevant jurisdiction. Implementation of and compliance with these laws and regulations may be more costly or take longer than we anticipate, or could otherwise adversely affect our business operations, which could negatively impact our financial position or cash flows. Furthermore, various countries have implemented legislation requiring the storage of travel or other personal data locally. Our business could be materially adversely affected by our inability, or the inability of our vendors who receive personal data from us, to operate with regard to the use of personal data, new data handling or localization requirements. Additionally, media coverage of data incidents has escalated, in part because of the increased number of enforcement actions, investigations and lawsuits. As this focus and attention on privacy and data protection continues to increase, we also risk exposure to potential liabilities and costs or face reputational risks resulting from the compliance with, or any failure to comply with applicable legal requirements, conflicts among these legal requirements or differences in approaches to privacy and security of travel data.
Implementation of software solutions often involves a significant commitment of resources, and any failure to deliver as promised on a significant implementation could adversely affect our business.
In our Travel Solutions and Hospitality Solutions businesses, the implementation of software solutions often involves a significant commitment of resources and is subject to a number of significant risks over which we may or may not have control. These risks include:
the features of the implemented software may not meet the expectations or fit the business model of the customer;
our limited pool of trained experts for implementations cannot quickly and easily be augmented for complex implementation projects, such that resources issues, if not planned and managed effectively, could lead to costly project delays;
customer-specific factors, such as the stability, functionality, interconnection and scalability of the customer’s pre-existing information technology infrastructure, as well as financial or other circumstances could destabilize, delay or prevent the completion of the implementation process, which, for airline reservations systems, typically takes 12 to 18 months; and
customers and their partners may not fully or timely perform the actions required to be performed by them to ensure successful implementation, including measures we recommend to safeguard against technical and business risks.
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As a result of these and other risks, some of our customers may incur large, unplanned costs in connection with the purchase and installation of our software products. Also, implementation projects could take longer than planned or fail. We may not be able to reduce or eliminate protracted installation or significant additional costs. Significant delays or unsuccessful customer implementation projects could result in cancellation or renegotiation of existing agreements, claims from customers, harm our reputation and negatively impact our operating results.
Our Travel Solutions business depends on relationships with travel buyers.
Our Travel Solutions business relies on relationships with several large travel buyers, including TMCs and OTAs, to generate a large portion of its revenue through bookings made by these travel companies. This revenue concentration in a relatively small number of travel buyers makes us particularly dependent on factors affecting those companies. For example, if demand for their services decreases, or if a key supplier pulls its content from us, travel buyers may stop utilizing our services or move all or some of their business to competitors or competing channels. Although our contracts with larger travel agencies often increase the incentive consideration when the travel agency processes a certain volume or percentage of its bookings through our GDS, travel buyers are not contractually required to book exclusively through our GDS during the contract term. Travel buyers also shift bookings to other distribution channels for many reasons, including to avoid becoming overly dependent on a single source of travel content or to increase their bargaining power with GDS providers. Additionally, some regulations allow travel buyers to terminate their contracts earlier.
These risks are exacerbated by increased consolidation among travel agencies and TMCs, which may ultimately reduce the pool of travel agencies that subscribe to GDSs. We must compete with other GDSs and other competitors for their business by offering competitive upfront incentive consideration, which, due to the strong bargaining power of these large travel buyers, tend to increase in each round of contract renewals. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Factors Affecting our Results—Increasing travel agency incentive consideration" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information about our incentive consideration. However, any reduction in transaction fees from travel suppliers due to supplier consolidation or other market forces could limit our ability to increase incentive consideration to travel agencies in a cost-effective manner or otherwise affect our margins.
Our Travel Solutions and Hospitality Solutions businesses depend on maintaining and renewing contracts with their customers and other counterparties.
In our Travel Solutions business, we enter into participating carrier distribution and services agreements with airlines. Our contracts with major carriers typically last for three- to five-year terms and are generally subject to automatic renewal at the end of the term, unless terminated by either party with the required advance notice. Our contracts with smaller airlines generally last for one year and are also subject to automatic renewal at the end of the term, unless terminated by either party with the required advance notice. Airlines are not typically contractually obligated to distribute exclusively through our GDS during the contract term and may terminate their agreements with us upon providing the required advance notice after the expiration of the initial term. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to renew our airline contracts in the future on favorable economic terms or at all, and the termination or expiration of these agreements could materially adversely impact our business. See “—Our Travel Solutions business is exposed to pricing pressure from travel suppliers."
We also enter into contracts with travel buyers. Although most of our travel buyer contracts have terms of one to three years, we typically have non-exclusive, five- to ten-year contracts with our major travel agency customers. We also typically have three- to five-year contracts with corporate travel departments, which generally renew automatically unless terminated with the required advance notice. A meaningful portion of our travel buyer agreements, typically representing approximately 15% to 20% of our bookings, are up for renewal in any given year. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to renew our travel buyer agreements in the future on favorable economic terms or at all. Similarly, our Travel Solutions and Hospitality Solutions businesses are based on contracts with travel suppliers for a typical duration of three to seven years for airlines and one to five years for hotels, respectively. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to renew our solutions contracts in the future on favorable economic terms or at all. Additionally, we use several third-party distributor partners and equity method investments to extend our GDS services in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (“EMEA”) and Asia-Pacific (“APAC”). The termination of our contractual arrangements with any of these third-party distributor partners and equity method investments could adversely impact our Travel Solutions business in the relevant regions. See “—We rely on third-party distributor partners and equity method investments to extend our GDS services to certain regions, which exposes us to risks associated with lack of direct management control and potential conflicts of interest.” for more information on our relationships with our third-party distributor partners and equity method investments.
Our failure to renew some or all of these agreements on economically favorable terms or at all, or the early termination of these existing contracts, would adversely affect the value of our Travel Solutions business as a marketplace due to our limited content and distribution reach, which could cause some of our subscribers to move to a competing GDS or use other travel technology providers for the solutions we provide and would materially harm our business, reputation and brand. Our business therefore relies on our ability to renew our agreements with our travel buyers, travel suppliers, third-party distributor partners and equity method investments or developing relationships with new travel buyers and travel suppliers to offset any customer losses.
We are subject to a certain degree of revenue concentration among a portion of our customer base. Because of this concentration among a small number of customers, if an event were to adversely affect one of these customers, it could have a material impact on our business.
We are exposed to risks associated with payment card industry data ("PCI") compliance.
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The PCI Data Security Standard (“PCI DSS”) is a specific set of comprehensive security standards required by credit card brands for enhancing payment account data security, including but not limited to requirements for security management, policies, procedures, network architecture, and software design. PCI DSS compliance is required in order to maintain credit card processing services. The cost of compliance with PCI DSS is significant and may increase as the requirements change. For example, the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council has released version 4.0 of its Data Security Standard, and we are conducting an assessment to determine the scope and impact of these new standards on our existing processes and controls. We are assessed periodically for assurance and successfully completed our last annual assessment in November 2023. Compliance does not guarantee a completely secure environment and notwithstanding the results of this assessment there can be no assurance that payment card brands will not request further compliance assessments or set forth additional requirements to maintain access to credit card processing services. See “—Security incidents expose us to liability and could damage our reputation and our business.” Compliance is an ongoing effort and the requirements evolve as new threats are identified. In the event that we were to lose PCI DSS compliance status (or fail to renew compliance under a future version of the PCI DSS), we could be exposed to increased operating costs, fines and penalties and, in extreme circumstances, may have our credit card processing privileges revoked, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are involved in various legal proceedings which may cause us to incur significant fees, costs and expenses and may result in unfavorable outcomes.
We are involved in various legal proceedings that involve claims for substantial amounts of money or which involve how we conduct our business. See Note 18. Commitments and Contingencies, to our consolidated financial statements. For example, as a result of the judgment in our antitrust litigation with US Airways, we may be required to pay US Airways’ reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs. Depending on the amount of attorneys’ fees and costs required to be paid to US Airways, if any, if we do not have sufficient cash on hand, we may be required to seek financing from private or public financing sources, which may not be assured. See “—We have a significant amount of indebtedness, which could adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to operate our business and to fulfill our obligations under our indebtedness.” In addition, although the jury rejected US Airways’ claim under Section 1 of the Sherman Act, finding that Sabre’s contractual terms were not anticompetitive, the jury found in favor of US Airways with respect to its monopolization claim for the period from 2007 to 2012 under Section 2 of the Sherman Act. Although US Airways was only awarded $1.00 in single damages with respect to this verdict, and we believe the applicable limitations period for similar claims has expired, other parties might nevertheless likewise seek to benefit from this judgment by threatening to bring or actually bringing their own claims against us on the same or similar grounds or utilizing the litigation to seek more favorable contract terms. Depending on the outcome of any of these matters, and the scope of the outcome, the manner in which our airline distribution business is operated could be affected and could potentially force changes to the existing airline distribution business model.
The defense of these actions, as well as any of the other actions described under Note 18. Commitments and Contingencies, to our consolidated financial statements or elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and any other actions that might be brought against us in the future, is time consuming and diverts management’s attention. Even if we are ultimately successful in defending ourselves in such matters, we are likely to incur significant fees, costs and expenses as long as they are ongoing. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any failure to comply with regulations or any changes in such regulations governing our businesses could adversely affect us.
Parts of our business operate in regulated industries and could be adversely affected by unfavorable changes in or the enactment of new laws, rules or regulations applicable to us, which could decrease demand for, or restrict access to, our products and services, increase costs or subject us to additional liabilities. Moreover, regulatory authorities have relatively broad discretion to grant, renew and revoke licenses and approvals and to implement or interpret regulations. Accordingly, these regulatory authorities could prevent or temporarily suspend us from carrying on some or all of our activities or otherwise penalize us if our practices were found not to comply with the applicable regulatory or licensing requirements or any interpretation of such requirements by the regulatory authority. In addition, we are subject to or affected by international, federal, state and local laws, regulations and policies, which are constantly subject to change. These include data protection and privacy legislation and regulations, as well as legislation and regulations affecting issues such as: trade sanctions, exports of technology, antitrust, anticorruption, antiboycott, telecommunications, cybersecurity, environmental, social and governance matters, and e-commerce. Our failure to comply with any of these requirements, interpretations, legislation or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Further, the United States has imposed economic sanctions, and could impose further sanctions in the future, that affect transactions with designated countries, including but not limited to, Cuba, Iran, the Crimea, Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine, North Korea and Syria, and nationals and others of those countries, and certain specifically targeted individuals and entities engaged in conduct detrimental to U.S. national security interests. These sanctions are administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) and are typically known as the OFAC rules. The OFAC rules, and similar regulations in other countries, are extensive and complex, and they differ from one sanctions regime to another. Failure to comply with these regulations could subject us to legal and reputational consequences, including civil and criminal penalties.
We have GDS contracts with carriers that fly to Cuba, Iran, the Crimea, Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine, North Korea and Syria but are based outside of those countries and are neither owned by those governments or nationals of those countries/regions nor themselves sanctioned. With respect to Iran, Sudan, North Korea and Syria we believe that our activities
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are designed to comply with certain information and travel-related exemptions. With respect to Cuba, we have advised OFAC that customers outside the United States we display on the Sabre GDS flight information for, and support booking and ticketing of, services of non-Cuban airlines that offer service to Cuba. Based on advice of counsel, we believe these activities to fall under an exemption from OFAC regulations applicable to the transmission of information and informational materials and transactions related thereto. We believe that our activities with respect to these countries are known to OFAC and other regulators. We note, however, that sanctions regulations and related interpretive guidance are complex and subject to varying interpretations. Due to this complexity, a regulator’s interpretation of its own regulations and guidance varies on a case by case basis. As a result, we cannot provide any guarantees that a regulator will not challenge any of our activities in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
In Europe, GDS regulations or interpretations thereof may increase our cost of doing business or lower our revenues, limit our ability to sell marketing data, impact relationships with travel buyers, airlines, rail carriers or others, impair the enforceability of existing agreements with travel buyers and other users of our system, prohibit or limit us from offering services or products, or limit our ability to establish or change fees. Although regulations specifically governing GDSs have been lifted in the United States, they remain subject to general regulation regarding unfair trade practices by the U.S. Department of Transportation (“DOT”). In addition, continued regulation of GDSs in the E.U. and elsewhere could also create the operational challenge of supporting different products, services and business practices to conform to the different regulatory regimes. We do not currently maintain a central database of all regulatory requirements affecting our worldwide operations and, as a result, the risk of non-compliance with the laws and regulations described above is heightened. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us to fines, penalties and potential criminal violations. Any changes to these laws or regulations or any new laws or regulations may make it more difficult for us to operate our business.
In addition, in connection with the current military conflict in Ukraine, the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union and other governments have imposed varying sanctions and export-control measure packages impacting Russia and certain regions of Ukraine and Belarus and may implement additional sanctions and export controls in the future. The conflict and these sanctions and export controls have prevented us, and in the future could further prevent or discourage us, from performing or renewing existing contracts with or receiving payments from customers in those countries. In addition, the conflict or these sanctions and export controls have prevented and in the future could further prevent or discourage third parties on whom we may rely from continuing to perform in those countries. These sanctions, export controls and related items, as well as actions taken by us or others in response to them or otherwise in connection with the military conflict, have adversely impacted, and in the future could further adversely impact, our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Russia has adopted legislation and related regulations, effective October 30, 2022, that require activities related to the development, creation and operation of automated information systems for processing domestic air transportation within the Russian Federation to be owned and operated by Russian residents or legal entities with no updates from or connection with systems abroad. This legislation and these regulations have prohibited our ability to provide these services in Russia, which has negatively impacted and is expected to continue to negatively impact our revenue and results. See “—Recent Developments Affecting our Results of Operations" for further details.
As noted, the regulations and sanctions described above, as well as other sanctions regimes, are complex, and, while we have a compliance program in place to help us address these items, there can be no assurance that we will be able to consistently address them in an effective manner. Any failure to comply with these sanctions, export controls and related rules and regulations may subject us to fines, penalties and potential criminal violations. In the third quarter of 2022, we identified elements of our sanctions compliance program that were not functioning as we intended, which we are addressing. It is possible that our enhanced program will identify material items that do not comply with these regulatory or sanction requirements. The amount of any penalties and other impacts, costs or remediations related to these items may adversely impact our results. We have become aware that we received payments that were not material in amount from an air carrier in Russia for GDS services, and the receipt of these payments may be in violation of U.K. sanctions. We have voluntarily disclosed the receipt of these payments to the U.K. Office of Financial Sanctions Implementation (OFSI). If OFSI were to impose a penalty, we believe that it would not be material; however, there can be no assurance of the amount of any such penalty.
We are exposed to risks associated with acquiring or divesting businesses or business operations.
We have acquired, and, as part of our growth strategy, may in the future acquire, businesses or business operations. We may not be able to identify suitable candidates for additional business combinations and strategic investments, obtain financing on acceptable terms for such transactions, obtain necessary regulatory approvals or otherwise consummate such transactions on acceptable terms, or at all.
Any acquisitions that we are able to identify and complete may also involve a number of risks, including our inability to successfully or profitably integrate, operate, maintain and manage our newly acquired operations or employees; the diversion of our management’s attention from our existing business to integrate operations and personnel; possible material adverse effects on our results of operations during the integration process; becoming subject to contingent or other liabilities, including liabilities arising from events or conduct predating the acquisition that were not known to us at the time of the acquisition; and our possible inability to achieve the intended objectives of the acquisition, including the inability to achieve anticipated business or financial results, cost savings and synergies. Acquisitions may also have unanticipated tax, regulatory and accounting ramifications, including recording goodwill and nonamortizable intangible assets that are subject to impairment testing on a regular basis and potential periodic impairment charges and incurring amortization expenses related to certain intangible assets. To consummate any of these acquisitions, we may need to raise external funds through the sale of equity or the issuance of debt in the capital
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markets or through private placements, which may affect our liquidity and may dilute the value of our common stock. See “—We have a significant amount of indebtedness, which could adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to operate our business and to fulfill our obligations under our indebtedness.”
We have also divested, and may in the future divest, businesses or business operations, including the sale of our AirCentre portfolio on February 28, 2022. Any divestitures may involve a number of risks, including the diversion of management’s attention, significant costs and expenses, failure to obtain necessary regulatory approvals, implementation of transition services related to such divestitures, the loss of customer relationships and cash flow, and the disruption of the affected business or business operations. Failure to timely complete or to consummate a divestiture may negatively affect the valuation of the affected business or business operations or result in restructuring charges.
We rely on the value of our brands, which may be damaged by a number of factors, some of which are out of our control.
We believe that maintaining and expanding our portfolio of product and service brands are important aspects of our efforts to attract and expand our customer base. Our brands may be negatively impacted by, among other things, unreliable service levels from third-party providers, customers’ inability to properly interface their applications with our technology, the loss or unauthorized disclosure of personal data, including PCI or personally identifiable information (“PII”), or other bad publicity due to litigation, regulatory concerns or otherwise relating to our business. See “—Security incidents expose us to liability and could damage our reputation and our business.” Any inability to maintain or enhance awareness of our brands among our existing and target customers could negatively affect our current and future business prospects.
We rely on third-party distributor partners and equity method investments to extend our GDS services to certain regions, which exposes us to risks associated with lack of direct management control and potential conflicts of interest.
Our Travel Solutions business utilizes third-party distributor partners and equity method investments to extend our GDS services in EMEA and APAC. We work with these partners to establish and maintain commercial and customer service relationships with both travel suppliers and travel buyers. Since, in many cases, we do not exercise full management control over their day-to-day operations, the success of their marketing efforts and the quality of the services they provide are beyond our control. If these partners do not meet our standards for distribution, our reputation may suffer materially, and sales in those regions could decline significantly. Any interruption in these third-party services, deterioration in their performance or termination of our contractual arrangements with them could negatively impact our ability to extend our GDS services in the relevant markets. In addition, our business may be harmed due to potential conflicts of interest with our equity method investments.
Risks Related to Technology and Intellectual Property
We rely on the availability and performance of information technology services provided by third parties, including network, cloud, mainframe and SaaS providers.
Our businesses are dependent on IT infrastructure and applications operated for us by network, cloud, mainframe and SaaS providers. The commercial services we offer to our customers generally run on infrastructure provided by third parties such as DXC Technology ("DXC") and cloud providers. DXC provides significant operational support for our mainframe platforms in addition to basic hosting services. We also use multiple third-party SaaS platforms to operate our services, run our business, and support our customers, including IT service management, program and project management, enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management and human resource management systems.
Our success is dependent on our ability to maintain effective relationships with these third-party technology and service providers. Some of our agreements with third-party technology and service providers are terminable for cause on short notice and often provide limited recourse for service interruptions. For example, our agreement with DXC provides us with limited indemnification rights. We could face significant additional cost or business disruption if: (1) Any of these providers fail to enable us to provide our customers and suppliers with reliable, real-time access to our systems. For example, we have previously experienced a significant outage of the Sabre platform due to a failure on the part of one of our service providers, and such outages may occur in the future. This outage, which affected our Travel Solutions business, lasted several hours and caused significant problems for our customers. Any such future outages could cause damage to our reputation, customer loss and require us to pay compensation to affected customers for which we may not be indemnified or compensated. (2) Our arrangements with such providers are terminated or impaired and we cannot find alternative sources of technology or systems support on commercially reasonable terms or on a timely basis. For example, our substantial dependence on DXC for our mainframe platforms makes it difficult for us to switch vendors and makes us more sensitive to changes in DXC's pricing for its services.
Our success depends on maintaining the integrity of our systems and infrastructure, which may suffer from failures, capacity constraints, business interruptions and forces outside of our control.
We may be unable to maintain and improve the efficiency, reliability and integrity of our systems. Unexpected increases in the volume of our business could exceed currently allocated system capacity, resulting in service interruptions, outages and delays. These constraints could also lead to the deterioration of our services or impair our ability to process transactions. We occasionally experience system interruptions that make certain of our systems unavailable including, but not limited to, our GDS and the services that our Travel Solutions and Hospitality Solutions businesses provide to airlines and hotels. In addition, we have experienced in the past and may in the future occasionally experience system interruptions as we execute changes for the
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purpose of enhancing our products or achieving other technological objectives. System interruptions prevent us from efficiently providing services to customers or other third parties, and could cause damage to our reputation and result in the loss of customers and revenues or cause us to incur litigation and liabilities. Although we have contractually limited our liability for damages caused by outages of our GDS (other than damages caused by our gross negligence or willful misconduct), we cannot guarantee that we will not be subject to lawsuits or other claims for compensation from our customers in connection with such outages for which we may not be indemnified or compensated.
Our systems are also susceptible to external damage or disruption. Our systems have in the past been, and at any time, including in the future could be, damaged or disrupted by events such as power, hardware, software or telecommunication failures, human errors, natural events including floods, hurricanes, fires, winter storms, earthquakes and tornadoes, terrorism, break-ins, hostilities, war or similar events. Computer viruses, malware, denial of service attacks, ransomware attacks, attacks on, or exploitations of, hardware or software vulnerabilities, physical or electronic break-ins, phishing attacks, cybersecurity incidents or other security incidents, and similar disruptions affecting the Internet, telecommunication services, our systems, or our customers' systems have caused in the past and could at any time, including in the future, cause service interruptions or the loss of critical data, preventing us from providing timely services. For example, in April 2021 our subsidiary Radixx announced an event impacting its Radixx reservation system. See “—Security incidents expose us to liability and could damage our reputation and our business.” Failure to efficiently provide services to customers or other third parties could cause damage to our reputation and result in the loss of customers and revenues, asset impairments, significant recovery costs or litigation and liabilities. Moreover, such risks are likely to increase as we expand our business and as the tools and techniques involved become more sophisticated.
Although we have implemented measures intended to protect our critical systems and data and provide comprehensive disaster recovery and contingency plans for certain customers that purchase this additional protection, these protections and plans are not in place for all systems. Disasters affecting our facilities, systems or personnel might be expensive to remedy and could significantly diminish our reputation and our brands, and we may not have adequate insurance to cover such costs.
Customers and other end-users who rely on our software products and services, including our SaaS and hosted offerings, for applications that are integral to their businesses may have a greater sensitivity to product errors and security vulnerabilities than customers for software products generally. We utilize various generative artificial intelligence (AI) solutions from our third-party providers as part of some of our software products. There are risks associated with the use of emerging technologies such as generative AI, including risks related to testing and validating the security and privacy mechanisms of the third-party providers, as well as risks related to implementing technical security controls to govern and mange this technology in a secure manner. If we were to experience a cybersecurity incident related to the integration of AI capabilities into our software product offerings, or if there are deficiencies or other failures of such AI solutions from our third-party providers, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. AI also presents various emerging legal, regulatory and ethical issues, and the incorporation of AI into our software products could require us to expend significant resources in developing, testing and maintaining our product offerings and may cause us to experience brand, reputational, or competitive harm, or incur legal liability. Additionally, security incidents that affect third parties upon which we rely, such as travel suppliers, may further expose us to negative publicity, possible liability or regulatory penalties. Events outside our control have caused in the past and could in the future cause interruptions in our IT systems, which could have a material adverse effect on our business operations and harm our reputation.
Security incidents expose us to liability and could damage our reputation and our business.
We process, store, and transmit large amounts of data, such as PII of our customers and employees and PCI of our customers, and it is critical to our business strategy that our facilities and infrastructure, including those provided by DXC, cloud providers or other vendors, remain secure and are perceived by the marketplace to be secure. Our infrastructure may be vulnerable to physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses, ransomware attacks, or similar disruptive problems.
In addition, we, like most technology companies, are the target of cybercriminals who attempt to compromise our systems. We are subject to and experience threats and intrusions that have to be identified and remediated to protect sensitive information along with our intellectual property and our overall business. To address these threats and intrusions, we have a team of experienced security experts and support from firms that specialize in data security and cybersecurity. We are periodically subject to these threats and intrusions, and sensitive information has in the past been, and could at any time, including in the future, be compromised as a result. In addition, the techniques employed in connection with these threats and intrusions are changing, developing and evolving rapidly, including from emerging technologies such as advanced forms of AI. The costs and impacts related to these incidents, including the costs of investigation and remediation, any associated penalties assessed by any governmental authority or payment card brand, and any indemnification or other contractual obligations to our customers, may be material and could damage our reputation.
For example, we previously became aware of an incident involving unauthorized access to payment information contained in a subset of hotel reservations processed through the Sabre Hospitality Solutions SynXis Central Reservation System (the “HS Central Reservation System”). In December 2020, we entered into settlement agreements with certain state Attorneys General to resolve their investigation into this incident. As part of these agreements, we paid $2 million to the states represented by the Attorneys General in the first quarter of 2021 and agreed to implement certain security controls and processes. In addition, in April 2021, our subsidiary, Radixx, announced that it had experienced an event that impacted its Radixx Res™ reservation system. An investigation indicated that malware on the Radixx Res™ reservation system caused the activity. Based on the investigation, Sabre’s systems, including GDS, Airline IT, SabreSonic passenger service system and Hospitality
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Solutions systems, were not impacted, and the investigation indicated that the Radixx database containing customer information was not compromised in this event.
In addition, in the third quarter of 2023, we became aware that an unauthorized actor had illegally extracted certain company data and posted it to the dark web. Immediately upon becoming aware of this extraction, we initiated an investigation, with the assistance of cybersecurity and forensics professionals. We have also notified federal law enforcement and have provided, and will continue to provide, other required notifications. To date this cybersecurity incident has not had a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. However, there is no assurance that it will not result in significant costs to us, reputational harm, expenditure of additional resources, lawsuits, or regulatory inquiries in the future that could result in a material adverse effect.
Any computer viruses, malware, denial of service attacks, ransomware attacks, attacks on, or exploitations of, hardware or software vulnerabilities, physical or electronic break-ins, phishing attacks, cybersecurity incidents such as the items described above, or other security incident or compromise of the information handled by us or our service providers may jeopardize the security or integrity of information in our computer systems and networks or those of our customers and cause significant interruptions in our and our customers’ operations.
Any systems and processes that we have developed or utilize that are designed to protect customer information and prevent data loss and other security incidents cannot provide absolute security. In addition, we may not successfully implement remediation plans to address all potential exposures. It is possible that we may have to expend additional financial and other resources to address these problems. Failure to prevent or mitigate data loss or other security incidents could expose us or our customers to a risk of loss or misuse of such information, cause customers to lose confidence in our data protection measures, damage our reputation, adversely affect our operating results or result in litigation or potential liability for us. For example, our agreements with customers may require that we indemnify the customer for liability arising from data incidents under the terms of our agreements with these customers. These indemnification obligations could be significant and may exceed the limits of any applicable insurance policy we maintain. While we maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions, cover certain aspects of cyber risks, this insurance coverage is subject to a retention amount and may not be applicable to a particular incident or otherwise may be insufficient to cover all our losses beyond any retention. Similarly, we expect to continue to make significant investments in our information technology infrastructure. The implementation of these investments may be more costly or take longer than we anticipate, or could otherwise adversely affect our business operations, which could negatively impact our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Intellectual property infringement actions against us could be costly and time consuming to defend and may result in business harm if we are unsuccessful in our defense.
Third parties may assert, including by means of counterclaims against us as a result of the assertion of our intellectual property rights, that our products, services or technology, or the operation of our business, violate their intellectual property rights. We are currently subject to such assertions, including patent infringement claims, and may be subject to such assertions in the future. These assertions may also be made against our customers who may seek indemnification from us. In the ordinary course of business, we enter into agreements that contain indemnity obligations whereby we are required to indemnify our customers against these assertions arising from our customers’ usage of our products, services or technology. As the competition in our industry increases and the functionality of technology offerings further overlaps, these claims and counterclaims could become more common. We cannot be certain that we do not or will not infringe third parties’ intellectual property rights.
Legal proceedings involving intellectual property rights are highly uncertain and can involve complex legal and scientific questions. Any intellectual property claim against us, regardless of its merit, could result in significant liabilities to our business, and can be expensive and time consuming to defend. Depending on the nature of such claims, our businesses may be disrupted, our management’s attention and other company resources may be diverted and we may be required to redesign, reengineer or rebrand our products and services, if feasible, to stop offering certain products and services or to enter into royalty or licensing agreements in order to obtain the rights to use necessary technologies, which may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all, and may result in a decrease of our capabilities. Our failure to prevail in such matters could result in loss of intellectual property rights, judgments awarding substantial damages, including possible treble damages and attorneys’ fees, and injunctive or other equitable relief against us. If we are held liable, we may be unable to use some or all of our intellectual property rights or technology. Even if we are not held liable, we may choose to settle claims by making a monetary payment or by granting a license to intellectual property rights that we otherwise would not license. Further, judgments may result in loss of reputation, may force us to take costly remediation actions, delay selling our products and offering our services, reduce features or functionality in our services or products, or cease such activities altogether. Insurance may not cover or be insufficient for any such claim.
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We may not be able to protect our intellectual property effectively, which may allow competitors to duplicate our products and services.
Our success and competitiveness depend, in part, upon our technologies and other intellectual property, including our brands. Among our significant assets are our proprietary and licensed software and other proprietary information and intellectual property rights. We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark and patent laws, laws protecting trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect these assets both in the United States and in foreign countries. The laws of some jurisdictions may provide less protection for our technologies and other intellectual property assets than the laws of the United States.
There is no certainty that our intellectual property rights will provide us with substantial protection or commercial benefit. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property, some of our innovations may not be protectable, and our intellectual property rights may offer insufficient protection from competition or unauthorized use, lapse or expire, be challenged, narrowed, invalidated, or misappropriated by third parties, or be deemed unenforceable or abandoned, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and the legal remedies available to us may not adequately compensate us. We cannot be certain that others will not independently develop, design around, or otherwise acquire equivalent or superior technology or intellectual property rights.
While we take reasonable steps to protect our brands and trademarks, we may not be successful in maintaining or defending our brands or preventing third parties from adopting similar brands. If our competitors infringe our principal trademarks, our brands may become diluted or if our competitors introduce brands or products that cause confusion with our brands or products in the marketplace, the value that our consumers associate with our brands may become diminished, which could negatively impact revenue. Our patent applications may not be granted, and the patents we own could be challenged, invalidated, narrowed or circumvented by others and may not be of sufficient scope or strength to provide us with any meaningful protection or commercial advantage. Once our patents expire, or if they are invalidated, narrowed or circumvented, our competitors may be able to utilize the technology protected by our patents which may adversely affect our business. Although we rely on copyright laws to protect the works of authorship created by us, we do not generally register the copyrights in our copyrightable works where such registration is permitted. Copyrights of U.S. origin must be registered before the copyright owner may bring an infringement suit in the United States. Accordingly, if one of our unregistered copyrights of U.S. origin is infringed by a third party, we will need to register the copyright before we can file an infringement suit in the United States, and our remedies in any such infringement suit may be limited. We use reasonable efforts to protect our trade secrets. However, protecting trade secrets can be difficult and our efforts may provide inadequate protection to prevent unauthorized use, misappropriation, or disclosure of our trade secrets, know how, or other proprietary information. We also rely on our domain names to conduct our online businesses. While we use reasonable efforts to protect and maintain our domain names, if we fail to do so the domain names may become available to others. Further, the regulatory bodies that oversee domain name registration may change their regulations in a way that adversely affects our ability to register and use certain domain names.
We license software and other intellectual property from third parties. These licensors may breach or otherwise fail to perform their obligations or claim that we have breached or otherwise attempt to terminate their license agreements with us. We also rely on license agreements to allow third parties to use our intellectual property rights, including our software, but there is no guarantee that our licensees will abide by the terms of our license agreements or that the terms of our agreements will always be enforceable. In addition, policing unauthorized use of and enforcing intellectual property can be difficult and expensive. The fact that we have intellectual property rights, including registered intellectual property rights, may not guarantee success in our attempts to enforce these rights against third parties. Besides general litigation risks, changes in, or interpretations of, intellectual property laws may compromise our ability to enforce our rights. We may not be aware of infringement or misappropriation or elect not to seek to prevent it. Our decisions may be based on a variety of factors, such as costs and benefits of taking action, and contextual business, legal, and other issues. Any inability to adequately protect our intellectual property on a cost-effective basis could harm our business.
We use open source software in our solutions that may subject our software solutions to general release or require us to re-engineer our solutions.
We use open source software in our solutions and may use more open source software in the future. From time to time, there have been claims by companies claiming ownership of software that was previously thought to be open source and that was incorporated by other companies into their products. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the open source software and that we license these modifications or derivative works under the terms of a particular open source license or other license granting third parties certain rights of further use. If we combine or, in some cases, link our proprietary software solutions with or to open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain of the open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software solutions or license such proprietary solutions under the terms of a particular open source license or other license granting third parties certain rights of further use. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on origin of the software. In addition, open source license terms may be ambiguous and many of the risks associated with usage of open source cannot be eliminated, and could, if not properly addressed, negatively affect our business. If we were found to have inappropriately used open source software, we may be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our software, to re-engineer our solutions, to discontinue the sale of our solutions in the event re-
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engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or take other remedial action that may divert resources away from our development efforts, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Risks Related to Economic, Political and Global Conditions
Our business could be harmed by adverse global and regional economic and political conditions.
Travel expenditures are sensitive to personal and business discretionary spending levels and grow more slowly or decline during economic downturns. Our global presence makes our business potentially vulnerable to economic and political conditions that adversely affect business and leisure travel originating in or traveling to a particular region.
The global economy continues to face significant uncertainty, including increased inflation and interest rates, reduced financial capacity of both business and leisure travelers, diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence and discretionary income and general uncertainty about economic stability. Furthermore, changes in the regulatory, tax and economic environment in the United States could adversely impact travel demand, our business operations or our financial results. We cannot predict the magnitude, length or recurrence of these impacts to the global economy, which have impacted, and may continue to impact, demand for travel and lead to reduced spending on the services we provide.
Any unfavorable economic, political or regulatory developments in a particular region could negatively affect our business, such as delays in payment or non-payment of contracts, delays in contract implementation or signing, carrier control issues and increased costs from regulatory changes particularly as parts of our growth strategy involve expanding our presence in that region. For example, some regions have experienced or are expected to experience inflationary and/or slowing economic conditions. These adverse economic conditions may negatively impact our business results in those regions.
In addition, the current military conflict in Ukraine and the related imposition of sanctions and export controls on Russia and Belarus, as well as conflict in the Middle East, have created global economic uncertainty and contributed to inflationary pressures. A significant escalation or expansion of economic disruption, the conflicts' current scope or additional sanctions and export controls and actions taken in response to these sanctions and export controls could disrupt our business further, broaden inflationary costs, and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. See “—Our revenue is highly dependent on transaction volumes in the global travel industry, particularly air travel transaction volumes.”
We operate a global business that exposes us to risks associated with international activities.
Our international operations involve risks that are not generally encountered when doing business in the United States. These risks include, but are not limited to: (1) business, political and economic instability in foreign locations, including actual or threatened terrorist activities, and military action, as well as the effects of the current military conflict in Ukraine and in the Middle East; (2) adverse laws and regulatory requirements, including more comprehensive regulation in the E.U., the continued effects of the U.K.'s exit from the E.U. ("Brexit") and legislation and related regulations in Russia (see “—Any failure to comply with regulations or any changes in such regulations governing our businesses could adversely affect us.”); (3) changes in foreign currency exchange rates and financial risk arising from transactions in multiple currencies; (4) difficulty in developing, managing and staffing international operations because of distance, language and cultural differences; (5) disruptions to or delays in the development of communication and transportation services and infrastructure; (6) more restrictive data privacy requirements, including the GDPR; (7) consumer attitudes, including the preference of customers for local providers, as well as attitudes of other stakeholders stemming from our actions or inactions arising from or relating to the current military conflict in Ukraine; (8) increasing labor costs due to high wage inflation in foreign locations, differences in general employment conditions and regulations, and the degree of employee unionization and activism; (9) export or trade restrictions or currency controls; (10) governmental policies or actions, such as consumer, labor and trade protection measures and, travel restrictions, sanctions and export controls, including restrictions implemented in connection with the current military conflict in Ukraine; (11) taxes, restrictions on foreign investment and limits on the repatriation of funds; (12) diminished ability to legally enforce our contractual rights; and (13) decreased protection for intellectual property. Any of the foregoing risks may adversely affect our ability to conduct and grow our business internationally.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness, Financial Condition and Common Stock
We have a significant amount of indebtedness, which could adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to operate our business and to fulfill our obligations under our indebtedness.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness. As of December 31, 2023, we had $4.8 billion of indebtedness outstanding which is net of debt issuance costs and unamortized discounts. Our substantial level of indebtedness increases the possibility that we may not generate enough cash flow from operations to pay, when due, the principal of, interest on or other amounts due in respect of, these obligations. Other risks relating to our long-term indebtedness include: (1) increased vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions; (2) higher interest expense if interest rates increase on our floating rate borrowings and our hedging strategies do not effectively mitigate the effects of these increases or if we have to incur additional indebtedness in a higher interest rate environment; (3) need to divert a significant portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of cash to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, investments and other general corporate purposes; (4) limited ability to refinance our existing indebtedness or to obtain additional financing on terms we find acceptable, if needed, for working capital, capital expenditures, expansion plans and other investments, which may adversely affect our ability to implement our business strategy; (5) limited flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our businesses and the markets in which we operate or to take advantage of market opportunities; and (6) a competitive
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disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt. Subject to market conditions, we may opportunistically refinance portions of our debt in the near term which, at current interest rates and market conditions, may negatively impact our interest expense or result in higher stock dilution.
In addition, it is possible that we may need to incur additional indebtedness in the future in the ordinary course of business. While the terms of our outstanding indebtedness allow us to incur additional debt, subject to limitations, our ability to incur additional secured indebtedness is significantly limited. As a result, we expect that any material increases in total indebtedness, if available and to the extent issued in the future, may be unsecured. The terms of our Amended and Restated Credit Agreement allow us to incur additional debt subject to certain limitations. If new debt is added to current debt levels, the risks described above could intensify. In addition, our inability to maintain certain covenants could result in acceleration of a portion of our debt obligations and could cause us to be in default if we are unable to repay the accelerated obligations.
The terms of our debt covenants could limit our discretion in operating our business and any failure to comply with such covenants could result in the default of all of our debt.
The agreements governing our indebtedness contain and the agreements governing our future indebtedness will likely contain various covenants, including those that restrict our or our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things: (1) incur liens on our property, assets and revenue; (2) borrow money, and guarantee or provide other support for the indebtedness of third parties; (3) pay dividends or make other distributions on, redeem or repurchase our capital stock; (4) prepay, redeem or repurchase certain of our indebtedness; (5) enter into certain change of control transactions; (6) make investments in entities that we do not control, including equity method investments and joint ventures; (7) enter into certain asset sale transactions, including divestiture of certain company assets and divestiture of capital stock of wholly-owned subsidiaries; (8) enter into certain transactions with affiliates; (9) enter into secured financing arrangements; (10) enter into sale and leaseback transactions; (11) change our fiscal year; and (12) enter into substantially different lines of business. These covenants may limit our ability to effectively operate our businesses or maximize stockholder value. Any failure to comply with the restrictions of our Amended and Restated Credit Agreement or any agreement governing our other indebtedness may result in an event of default under those agreements. Such default may allow the creditors to accelerate the related debt, which may trigger cross-acceleration or cross-default provisions in other debt. In addition, lenders may be able to terminate any commitments they had made to supply us with further funds.
We may require more cash than we generate in our operating activities, and additional funding on reasonable terms or at all may not be available.
We cannot guarantee that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations to fund our capital investment requirements or other liquidity needs, including in light of the uncertainty related to volume trends. Moreover, because we are a holding company with no material direct operations, we depend on loans, dividends and other payments from our subsidiaries to generate the funds necessary to meet our financial obligations. Our subsidiaries are legally distinct from us and may be prohibited or restricted from paying dividends or otherwise making funds available to us under certain conditions. As a result, we may be required to finance our cash needs through bank loans, additional debt financing, sales of equity-linked securities, public or private equity offerings or otherwise. Our ability to arrange financing or refinancing and the cost of such financing or refinancing are dependent on numerous factors, including but not limited to general economic and capital market conditions, the availability of credit from banks or other lenders, investor confidence in us, and our results of operations.
There can be no assurance that financing or refinancing will be available on terms favorable to us or at all, which could force us to delay, reduce or abandon our growth strategy, increase our financing costs, or adversely affect our ability to operate our business. Additional funding from debt financings may make it more difficult for us to operate our business because a portion of our cash generated from internal operations would be used to make principal and interest payments on the indebtedness and we may be obligated to abide by restrictive covenants contained in the debt financing agreements, which may, among other things, limit our ability to make business decisions and further limit our ability to pay dividends. Recent increases in interest rates have significantly increased our interest expense, and further increases in interest rates would result in additional interest expense, which would adversely impact our financial performance. In addition, any downgrade of our debt ratings by Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s Investor Service or similar ratings agencies, increases in general interest rate levels and credit spreads or overall weakening in the credit markets could increase our cost of capital. Furthermore, raising capital through public or private sales of equity, or sales of equity-linked securities, could cause earnings or ownership dilution to your shareholding interests in our company.
We are exposed to interest rate fluctuations.
Our floating rate indebtedness and the potential refinancing of fixed rate indebtedness exposes us to fluctuations in prevailing interest rates. To reduce the impact of large fluctuations in interest rates, we typically hedge a portion of our interest rate risk by entering into derivative agreements with financial institutions. Our exposure to floating interest rates relates primarily to our borrowings under the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement.
The derivative agreements that we use to manage the risk associated with fluctuations in interest rates may not be able to eliminate the exposure to these changes. Additionally, recent interest rate increases have generally increased the cost of debt and we have been, and may in the future be, required to pay higher interest rates on new fixed rate indebtedness we have incurred and may incur in the future in comparison to the interest rates payable on our prior and currently outstanding fixed rate indebtedness, including in connection with the refinancing of such indebtedness. Interest rates are sensitive to numerous factors outside of our control, such as government and central bank monetary policy in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Depending
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on the size of the exposures and the relative movements of interest rates, if we choose not to hedge or fail to effectively hedge our exposure, we could experience a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
The market price of our common stock could decline due to the large number of outstanding shares of our common stock eligible for future sale.
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock or convertible instruments in the public market in future offerings, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. These sales could also make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-linked securities in the future, at a time and price that we deem appropriate. In addition, the additional sale of our common stock by our officers or directors in the public market, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. We may issue shares of our common stock or other securities from time to time as consideration for, or to finance, future acquisitions and investments or for other capital needs. We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our shares or the effect, if any, that future sales and issuances of shares would have on the market price of our common stock. If any such acquisition or investment is significant, the number of shares of common stock or the number or aggregate principal amount, as the case may be, of other securities that we may issue may in turn be substantial and may result in additional dilution to our stockholders. We may also grant registration rights covering shares of our common stock or other securities that we may issue in connection with any such acquisitions and investments. To the extent that any of us, our executive officers or directors sell, or indicate an intent to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline significantly.
We may recognize impairments on long-lived assets, including goodwill and other intangible assets, or recognize impairments on our equity method investments.
Our consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2023 contained goodwill and intangible assets, net totaling $2.9 billion. Future acquisitions that result in the recognition of additional goodwill and intangible assets would cause an increase in these types of assets. We do not amortize goodwill and intangible assets that are determined to have indefinite useful lives, but we amortize definite-lived intangible assets on a straight-line basis over their useful economic lives, which range from four to thirty years, depending on classification. We evaluate goodwill for impairment on an annual basis or earlier if impairment indicators exist and we evaluate definite-lived intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of definite-lived intangible assets used in combination to generate cash flows largely independent of other assets may not be recoverable. We record an impairment charge whenever the estimated fair value of our reporting units or of such intangible assets is less than its carrying value. The fair values used in our impairment evaluation are estimated using a combined approach based upon discounted future cash flow projections and observed market multiples for comparable businesses. Changes in estimates based on changes in risk-adjusted discount rates, future booking and transaction volume levels, travel supplier capacity and load factors, future price levels, rates of growth including long-term growth rates, rates of increase in operating expenses, cost of revenue and taxes, and changes in realization of estimated cost-saving initiatives could result in material impairment charges.
Maintaining and improving our financial controls and the requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and The NASDAQ Stock Market (“NASDAQ”) rules. The requirements of these rules and regulations have increased and will continue to significantly increase our legal and financial compliance costs, including costs associated with the hiring of additional personnel, making some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly, and may also place undue strain on our personnel, systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. Ensuring that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place, as well as maintaining these controls and procedures, is a costly and time-consuming effort that needs to be re-evaluated frequently. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“Section 404”) requires that we annually evaluate our internal control over financial reporting to enable management to report on, and our independent auditors to audit as of the end of each fiscal year the effectiveness of those controls. In connection with the Section 404 requirements, both we and our independent registered public accounting firm test our internal controls and could, as part of that documentation and testing, identify material weaknesses, significant deficiencies or other areas for further attention or improvement.
Implementing any appropriate changes to our internal controls may require specific compliance training for our directors, officers and employees, require the hiring of additional finance, accounting and other personnel, entail substantial costs to modify our existing accounting systems, or any manual systems or processes, and take a significant period of time to complete. These changes may not, however, be effective in maintaining the adequacy of our internal controls, and any failure to maintain that adequacy, or consequent inability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, could increase our operating costs and could materially impair our ability to operate our business. Moreover, adequate internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent fraud. As a result, our failure to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 on a timely basis could result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could cause the market value of our common stock to decline. Various rules and regulations applicable to public companies make it more difficult and more expensive for us to maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to maintain coverage. If we are unable to maintain adequate
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directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, our ability to recruit and retain qualified officers and directors, especially those directors who may be deemed independent for purposes of the NASDAQ rules, will be significantly curtailed.
We may have higher than anticipated tax liabilities.
We are subject to a variety of taxes in many jurisdictions globally, including income taxes in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels, and in many other countries. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We operate in numerous countries where our income tax returns are subject to audit and adjustment by local tax authorities. Because we operate globally, the nature of the uncertain tax positions is often very complex and subject to change, and the amounts at issue can be substantial. It is inherently difficult and subjective to estimate such amounts, as we must determine the probability of various possible outcomes. We re-evaluate uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit and new audit activity. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. Our effective tax rate may change from year to year based on changes in the mix or magnitude of activities and income allocated or earned among various jurisdictions, tax laws in these jurisdictions, tax treaties between countries, our eligibility for benefits under those tax treaties, and the estimated values of deferred tax assets and liabilities, including the estimation of valuation allowances. Such changes could result in an increase or decrease in the effective tax rate applicable to all or a portion of our income or losses which would impact our profitability. We consider the undistributed capital investments in our foreign subsidiaries to be indefinitely reinvested as of December 31, 2023, and, accordingly, have not provided deferred taxes on any outside basis differences for most subsidiaries.
We establish reserves for our potential liability for U.S. and non-U.S. taxes, including sales, occupancy and Value Added Taxes (“VAT”), consistent with applicable accounting principles and considering all current facts and circumstances. We also establish reserves when required relating to the collection of refunds related to value-added taxes, which are subject to audit and collection risks in various countries. Historically our right to recover certain value-added tax receivables associated with our European businesses has been questioned by tax authorities. These reserves represent our best estimate of our contingent liability for taxes. The interpretation of tax laws and the determination of any potential liability under those laws are complex, and the amount of our liability may exceed our established reserves.
New tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time and existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations and ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us. These events could require us to pay additional tax amounts on a prospective or retroactive basis, as well as require us to pay fees, penalties or interest for past amounts deemed to be due. New, changed, modified or newly interpreted or applied laws could also increase our compliance, operating and other costs, as well as the costs of our products and services. On August 16, 2022, the U.S. government enacted the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which includes a minimum tax equal to 15% of the adjusted financial statement income of certain corporations as well as a 1% excise tax on share buybacks, effective for tax years beginning in 2023. When effective, it is possible that the minimum tax could result in an additional tax liability over the regular federal corporate tax liability in a given year based on differences between book and taxable income (including as a result of temporary differences). We do not expect the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 to have a significant impact on the Company's tax rate and financial results in the near future. We will continue to evaluate its impact as further information becomes available. In addition, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has released Model Rules for a global minimum tax rate of 15% that would apply to multinational entities. Over 140 countries have agreed to enact legislation to implement these rules, with several already enacting domestic laws to do so. In some countries where we operate the new rules will begin to apply in the year 2024 with more expected in the year 2025. We are closely monitoring developments and evaluating the impacts these new rules will have on our tax rate. Additionally, several countries, primarily in Europe, and the European Commission have proposed or adopted taxes on revenue earned by multinational corporations in certain “digital economy” sectors from activities linked to the user-based activity of their residents. These proposals have generally been labeled as “digital services taxes” (“DST”). We continue to evaluate the potential effects that the DST may have on our operations, cash flows and results of operations. The future impact of the DST, including on our global operations, is uncertain, and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our pension plan obligations are currently unfunded, and we may have to make significant cash contributions to our plans, which could reduce the cash available for our business.
Our pension plans in the aggregate are estimated to be unfunded by $73 million as of December 31, 2023. With approximately 3,600 participants in our pension plans, we incur substantial costs relating to pension benefits, which can vary substantially as a result of changes in healthcare laws and costs, volatility in investment returns on pension plan assets and changes in discount rates used to calculate related liabilities. Our estimates of liabilities and expenses for pension benefits require the use of assumptions, including assumptions relating to the rate used to discount the future estimated liability, the rate of return on plan assets, inflation and several assumptions relating to the employee workforce (medical costs, retirement age and mortality). Actual results may differ, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. Future volatility and disruption in the stock markets could cause a decline in the asset values of our pension plans. In addition, a decrease in the discount rate used to determine minimum funding requirements could result in increased future contributions. If either occurs, or to avoid certain funding-based benefit restrictions, we may need to make
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additional pension contributions above what is currently estimated or provide security to the plan, which could reduce the cash available for our businesses.
We may not have sufficient insurance to cover our liability in pending litigation claims and future claims either due to coverage limits or as a result of insurance carriers seeking to deny coverage of such claims, which in either case could expose us to significant liabilities.
We maintain third-party insurance coverage against various liability risks, including securities, stockholders, derivative, ERISA, and product liability claims, as well as other claims that form the basis of litigation matters pending against us. We believe these insurance programs are an effective way to protect our assets against liability risks. However, the potential liabilities associated with litigation matters pending against us, or that could arise in the future, could exceed the coverage provided by such programs. In addition, our insurance carriers have in the past sought or may in the future seek to rescind or deny coverage with respect to pending claims or lawsuits, completed investigations or pending or future investigations and other legal actions against us. If we do not have sufficient coverage under our policies, or if the insurance companies are successful in rescinding or denying coverage, we may be required to make material payments in connection with third-party claims.
Defects in our products may subject us to significant warranty liabilities or product liability claims and we may have insufficient product liability insurance to pay material uninsured claims.
Our business exposes us to the risk of product liability claims that are inherent in software development. We may inadvertently create defective software or supply our customers with defective software or software components that we acquire from third parties, which could result in personal injury, property damage or other liabilities, and may result in warranty or product liability claims brought against us, our travel supplier customers or third parties. Under our customer agreements, we generally must indemnify our customers for liability arising from intellectual property infringement claims with respect to our software. These indemnifications could be significant and we may not have adequate insurance coverage to protect us against all claims. The combination of our insurance coverage, cash flows and reserves may not be adequate to satisfy product liabilities we may incur in the future. Even meritless claims could subject us to adverse publicity, hinder us from securing insurance coverage in the future, require us to incur significant legal fees, decrease demand for any products that we successfully develop, divert management’s attention, and force us to limit or forgo further development and commercialization of these products. The cost of any product liability litigation or other proceedings, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.
ITEM 1C.    CYBERSECURITY
Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy
We recognize the importance of assessing, identifying, and managing material risks associated with cybersecurity threats. We maintain a dedicated cybersecurity risk management function, which is integrated as part of our overall enterprise risk management program. Our key cybersecurity risks include, among others, operational risks; intellectual property theft; fraud; extortion; harm to employees or customers; violation of privacy or security laws and other litigation and legal risk; remote working environments; and reputational risks. We have implemented several cybersecurity processes, technologies, and controls to aid in our efforts to assess, identify, and manage these risks.
To identify and assess material risks from cybersecurity threats, members of our cybersecurity risk management function, which is led by our Chief Information Security Officer ("CISO"), consider cybersecurity threats within the context of our business environment. Cybersecurity risks are managed through technological, process, and administrative controls that are designed to target the mitigation of risk to levels acceptable to the business. Risk assessment and management include processes for managing third-party cybersecurity risk. These processes provide that third-party cybersecurity risk assessments are to be performed prior to a vendor’s engagement, upon contract renewal, and as we may otherwise require. Our formal cybersecurity policy program, which includes a collection of security policies and procedures, is in place to establish requirements, standards, and security controls designed to protect Sabre's technology environment.
We employ information technology and cybersecurity technologies that are designed to protect Sabre's technology environment, detect threats, respond to threats and help support operational resilience. These technologies facilitate the identification of threats and vulnerabilities that may exist in the Sabre technology environment. Protective measures are employed to counter threats and mitigate risk, supporting operational resilience of our technology products. These tools include cloud security posture management, workload protection, endpoint detection and response, network firewalls and intrusion detection systems, identity and access management tools, data protection technologies and logging, monitoring, and alerting tools. Accompanying these tools are various processes such as security education and awareness training, security maturity assessments, vulnerability assessments, threat intelligence and hunting, penetration testing, and tabletop exercises to inform our professionals’ risk identification and assessment. We practice data protection techniques and processes that are designed to treat our customer data with care. We also utilize third-parties, consultants, and auditors to regularly assess our security program. These assessments include periodic security maturity assessments in which third-parties assess security program
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maturity against established standards and industry benchmarks. We also annually engage a Qualified Security Assessor to conduct payment card industry certification on all applicable products and solutions.
Our cybersecurity incident response plan describes the activities we take to identify, detect, respond to and recover from cybersecurity incidents, which include processes to triage, assess severity for, escalate, contain, investigate, and remediate the incident, as well as to provide appropriate reporting and escalation. The program includes appropriate activities to escalate potentially material security incidents to our disclosure committee for review.
Based on the information we have as of the date of this Annual Report with respect to the periods beginning with those covered by this Annual Report, we do not believe any risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. We, like most technology companies, are the target of cybercriminals who attempt to compromise our systems. We describe risks relating to cybersecurity threats, including as a result of previous cybersecurity incidents in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, under the headings “Our success depends on maintaining the integrity of our systems and infrastructure, which may suffer from failures, capacity constraints, business interruptions and forces outside our control.” and “Security incidents expose us to liability and could damage our reputation and our business.”
Cybersecurity Governance
The Audit Committee of our Board of Directors has oversight authority to review our plans to mitigate cybersecurity risk. At least quarterly, the Audit Committee receives an overview from management of our cybersecurity threat risk management and strategy processes covering topics such as data security posture, results from third-party assessments, progress towards risk-management-related goals, our incident response plan, and potentially material cybersecurity threat risks or incidents and developments, as well as the steps management has taken to respond to these risks. In such sessions, the Audit Committee generally receives materials including a cybersecurity risk profile scorecard and other materials indicating current and emerging cybersecurity threat risks, and describing the company’s ability to mitigate those risks, and discusses such matters with our Chief Information Officer, our CISO, and our Data Privacy Officer. Members of the Audit Committee are also encouraged to regularly engage in ad hoc conversations with management on cybersecurity-related news events and discuss any updates to our cybersecurity risk management and strategy programs. Cybersecurity risks are also considered during separate Audit Committee, Technology Committee and Board of Directors meeting discussions of matters such as enterprise risk management, the annual planning process, our technology transformation, corporate development activity, and other relevant matters.
We also maintain a Cybersecurity Governance Committee, led by our CISO and comprised of senior cross-functional leaders including product, development, operational, and corporate business leaders. The committee oversees our cybersecurity risk management and strategy processes, which are discussed above. Our CISO has over 25 years of prior work experience in various roles involving managing cybersecurity risk, developing cybersecurity strategy, implementing effective information and cybersecurity programs and leading information technology and cybersecurity teams. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science Degree in Electrical Engineering as well as three additional master’s degrees, including a Master of Business Administration, and he is a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (ISC2) as well as a Certified Chief Information Security Officer (EC Council).
Members of management are informed about and monitor the prevention, mitigation, detection, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents through their management of, and participation in, the cybersecurity risk management and strategy processes described above, including the operation of our incident response plan. As discussed above, the Audit Committee has oversight authority and receives reports regarding cybersecurity threat risks, as well as other cybersecurity related matters, on at least a quarterly basis.
ITEM 2.        PROPERTIES
As a company with global operations, we operate in many countries with a variety of sales, administrative, product development and customer service roles provided in these offices.
Americas: As of December 31, 2023, our corporate and business unit headquarters and domestic operations are located in Southlake, Texas. There are five additional offices across North America and three offices across Latin America that serve in various sales, administration, software development and customer service capacities for all our business segments. All of these offices are leased.
EMEA: We maintain our regional headquarters for Europe, the Middle East, and Africa ("EMEA") in Richmond, United Kingdom. There are 29 additional offices across EMEA that serve in various sales, administration, software development and customer service capacities. All of these offices are leased.
APAC: We maintain our Asia-Pacific ("APAC") regional operations headquarters in Singapore. There are 20 additional offices across APAC that serve in various sales, administration, software development and customer service capacities. All of the offices are leased.
ITEM 3.        LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company and its subsidiaries are from time to time engaged in routine legal proceedings incidental to our business. For a description of our material legal proceedings, see Note 18. Commitments and Contingencies, to our consolidated financial
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statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference. While certain legal proceedings and related indemnification obligations to which we are a party specify the amounts claimed, these claims may not represent reasonably possible losses. Given the inherent uncertainties of litigation, the ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be predicted at this time, nor can the amount of possible loss or range of loss, if any, be reasonably estimated, except in circumstances where an aggregate litigation accrual has been recorded for probable and reasonably estimable loss contingencies. A determination of the amount of accrual required, if any, for these contingencies is made after careful analysis of each matter. The required accrual may change in the future due to new information or developments in each matter or changes in approach such as a change in settlement strategy in dealing with these matters. See “Risk Factors —"We are involved in various legal proceedings which may cause us to incur significant fees, costs and expenses and may result in unfavorable outcomes.”
ITEM 4.        MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The names and ages of our executive officers as of February 15, 2024, together with certain biographical information, are as follows:
NameAgePosition
Kurt Ekert53Chief Executive Officer and President
Sean Menke55Executive Chair of the Board
Ann Bruder58Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer
Joe DiFonzo58Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer
Roshan Mendis51Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer, Travel Solutions
Michael Randolfi51Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Shawn Williams51Executive Vice President and Chief People Officer
Scott Wilson56Executive Vice President, Sabre and President, Hospitality Solutions
Garry Wiseman47Executive Vice President and Chief Product and Technology Officer, Travel Solutions

Kurt Ekert has served as Chief Executive Officer and President of Sabre since April 2023. Prior to his election as Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Ekert served as President of Sabre since January 2022. Prior to joining Sabre, Mr. Ekert served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Carlson Worldwide Travel (CWT) from 2016 to 2021. Sabre has an agreement with CWT pursuant to which Sabre provides CWT with access to its GDS and pays incentive fees to CWT, and CWT purchases certain products from Sabre. From 2010 to 2015, he served as Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer of Travelport Worldwide Ltd., a distribution services provider for the global travel industry, and from 2006 to 2010, he served as Chief Operating Officer of Gulliver’s Travel Associates (GTA), a division of Travelport. From 2002 to 2006, he served in executive roles of increasing responsibility at Cendant (at then Cendant subsidiaries Travelport and Orbitz Worldwide). Prior to joining Cendant, Mr. Ekert’s experience in the travel industry included a number of senior finance roles at Continental Airlines. He also served four years as an active duty officer in the US Army. Mr. Ekert serves as a director of Passur Aerospace, Inc., a business intelligence company, and a director of ZYTLYN. He previously was Chairman of the US Department of Commerce Travel & Tourism Advisory Board, as well as a director for each of eNett, Carlson Travel Inc., the World Travel & Tourism Council, and the UNGA Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children.
Sean Menke has served as Executive Chair of the Board of Sabre since April 2023. He served as CEO of Sabre beginning in December 2016 and served as its President from December 2016 through January 2, 2022. He was elected Chair of the Board effective April 28, 2022. In April 2023, Mr. Menke relinquished his duties as CEO. Mr. Menke previously served as Sabre’s Executive Vice President and President of Travel Network. Before joining Sabre in October 2015, Mr. Menke served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Hawaiian Airlines from October 2014 to October 2015. From 2013 to 2014, he was Executive Vice President of Resources at IHS Inc., a global information technology company. He served as managing partner of Vista Strategic Group, LLC, a consulting firm, from 2012 to 2013 and from 2010 to 2011. From 2011 to 2012, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Pinnacle Airlines, and from 2007 to 2010 as President and Chief Executive Officer of Frontier Airlines. Mr. Menke earned an executive MBA from the University of Denver and dual bachelor of science degrees in Economics and Aviation Management from Ohio State University. He serves as a director of Waste Management, Inc., a provider of comprehensive waste management environmental services.
Ann Bruder is Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer. Prior to joining Sabre in 2023, Ms. Bruder served from 2020 to 2023 as Chief Legal, Development and Administrative Officer and Secretary of Blucora, Inc., a provider of integrated tax-focused wealth management services and software, and as its Chief Legal Officer and Secretary from 2017 to 2020. From 2015 to 2017, Ms. Bruder served as Vice President, General Counsel, Chief Compliance Officer and Corporate Secretary at Airlines Reporting Corporation, a provider of travel industry data, products and services. From 2014 to 2015, Ms. Bruder served as the President of Global Strategic Services, LLC, a strategic advisory firm. Prior to that, Mr. Bruder served as Senior Vice President of Law, Government Affairs and Global Compliance, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Commercial Metals Company, a steel and metal manufacturer, from mid-2009 through 2014 and the Deputy General Counsel from 2007 through mid-2009. Earlier in her career, Ms. Bruder served as Chief Legal and Compliance Officer at CARBO Ceramics Inc., a ceramic proppant producer, as well as serving in various senior legal roles at American Airlines, Inc. and Continental Airlines, Inc. Ms. Bruder began her career at the law firm of Thompson Coburn LLP. Ms. Bruder has a J.D. from Washington University (Order of the Barristers) and B.A. in Journalism and Public Relations with a minor in Economics from the University of Wyoming.
Joe DiFonzo is Executive Vice President and Chief lnformation Officer. Prior to becoming Executive Vice President in 2023, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer from July 2017 to 2023. Prior to joining Sabre, he served as both chief technology officer and CIO at Syniverse, a global provider of communication and information services for mobile network operators. He previously spent 20 years at Convergys/Cincinnati Bell Information Systems, as corporate product line architect and leading multiple product development teams for the telecom industry. Mr. DiFonzo holds a bachelor's degree in computer science from the University of Central Florida.
Roshan Mendis has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer, Travel Solutions since 2020. Mr. Mendis previously served as Chief Commercial Officer for the Travel Network business from 2018 to 2020, and prior to that
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served as Senior Vice President of International Markets for Sabre from 2017 to 2018. From 2015 to 2017, Mr. Mendis served as Senior Vice President of Asia Pacific for Sabre. Mr. Mendis has also served as President of Travelocity and Zuji, consumer-facing brands that were part of the Sabre portfolio. He completed his undergraduate studies at Chaminade University of Honolulu and University of Cambridge (UK) and later earned his MBA at the Rice University.
Michael Randolfi is Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Prior to joining Sabre in 2022, Mr. Randolfi served as Chief Financial Officer of BFA Industries, a beauty subscription business, from April 2021 until August 2022. From August 2019 through April 2021, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Adtalem Global Education Inc., a workforce solutions provider. Prior to joining Adtalem, Mr. Randolfi served as the Chief Financial Officer of Groupon, Inc. from April 2016 to August 2019. Prior to Groupon, Mr. Randolfi served as Chief Financial Officer of Orbitz Worldwide, Inc. from March 2013 until November 2015 (when he departed following its acquisition by Expedia, Inc.). Prior to Orbitz, Mr. Randolfi spent fourteen years with Delta Airlines in a variety of executive financial roles culminating in Senior Vice President and Controller. Mr. Randolfi received a Master of Business Administration from Emory University and his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of South Florida.
Shawn Williams is Executive Vice President and Chief People Officer. Prior to joining Sabre in 2020, Mr. Williams served as Chief Human Resources Officer of Scientific Games, a global technology gaming company, from 2017 to 2020. From 2016 to 2017, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer of LeEco Holdings North America, a consumer electronics business. Prior to that, Mr. Williams served as Senior Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer of Samsung Electronics America, an electronics and telecommunications company. He holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of Houston
Scott Wilson is Executive Vice President and President, Hospitality Solutions. Prior to joining Sabre in September 2020, Mr. Wilson served as Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer of Great Wolf Resorts, the largest family of indoor water park resorts in North America, since 2017. While there, he was responsible for a number of areas of Great Wolf’s business, including sales, marketing, digital, revenue management, data and analytics, contact centers, and merchandising. From 2010 to 2017, Mr. Wilson served as Vice President, e-Commerce and Merchandising, at United Airlines, Inc. one of the largest global airlines. In addition to e-commerce and merchandising functions, he was also responsible for distribution and commercial analytics. From 2007 to 2010, Mr. Wilson was Vice President, Digital Marketing, at Marriott International, Inc. with responsibility for all performance and social media marketing across Marriott’s full portfolio of brands. Prior to that, he held digital, marketing, and strategy leadership roles at BCG, America Online, Netscape, and American Airlines. Mr. Wilson is a current board member of Alliant Credit Union. Mr. Wilson received a Master of Science in Industrial Engineering (MBA) from Carnegie Mellon University and his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, Berkeley.
Garry Wiseman is Executive Vice President and Chief Product and Technology Officer, Travel Solutions. Prior to joining Sabre in 2022, Mr. Wiseman served as Senior Vice President and Chief Digital Officer of Nautilus, Inc., a global leader in innovative home fitness solutions, from October 2020 to 2022. From 2017 to 2020, he served as Senior Vice President of Digital Customer Experience for Dell Technologies Inc., a technology company, and from 2014 to 2017, he served as Vice President – Product Management at salesforce.com, inc., a leader in customer management technology.

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PART II
ITEM 5.        MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “SABR.” As of February 8, 2024, there were 98 stockholders of record of our common stock. There were no shares repurchased during the year ended December 31, 2023. See Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsLiquidity and Capital Resources—Recent Events Impacting Our Liquidity and Capital Resources—Share Repurchase Program."
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph shows a comparison from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023 of the cumulative total return for our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index ("NASDAQ Composite"), the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index ("S&P 500") and the Standard & Poor's Software and Services Index ("S&P 500/Software & Services") (collectively, the "Indices"). The graph assumes that $100 was invested at the market close on December 31, 2018 in the common stock of Sabre Corporation and the Indices as well as reinvestments of dividends. The stock price performance of the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
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The stock performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing by us under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate the graph by reference in such filing.    
ITEM 6.        [Reserved]
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ITEM 7.        MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
At Sabre, we make travel happen. We are a technology company that operates our business and presents our results through two business segments: (i) Travel Solutions, our global business-to-business travel marketplace for travel suppliers and travel buyers, including a broad portfolio of software technology products and solutions for airlines, and (ii) Hospitality Solutions, an extensive suite of leading software solutions for hoteliers.
A significant portion of our revenue is generated through transaction-based fees that we charge to our customers. For Travel Solutions, we generate revenue from our distribution activities through transaction fees for bookings on our GDS, and from our IT solutions through recurring usage-based fees for the use of our SaaS and hosted systems, as well as upfront fees and professional services fees. For Hospitality Solutions, we generate revenue from recurring usage-based fees for the use of our SaaS and hosted systems, as well as upfront fees and professional services fees. Items that are not allocated to our business segments are identified as corporate and primarily include stock-based compensation expense, litigation costs, corporate headcount-related costs and other items that are not identifiable with either of our segments.
Recent Developments Affecting our Results of Operations
The travel ecosystem has shifted over the past few years, resulting in the changing needs of our airline, hotel and agency customers, for which we have established strategic priorities with the goal of achieving sustainable long-term growth. We have experienced continued material headwinds within our consolidated financial results for 2022 and 2023. While growth on a year-over-year basis has resulted in improvement in our key volume metrics with the return of global travel volumes, recent industry air distribution volume growth has leveled-off. This may continue into the future and could impact our rate of growth. With the continued increase in booking volumes, our incentive consideration costs have also increased significantly compared to previous periods. Passengers boarded for IT solutions has been negatively impacted by recent customer de-migrations, which has been partially offset by customer growth.
During the second quarter of 2023, we announced and began to implement a cost reduction plan designed to reposition our business and to structurally reduce our cost base. As a result of this cost reduction plan, we incurred restructuring costs beginning in the second quarter of 2023 associated with our workforce. We estimate that these actions will reduce our operating expense on an annual basis by approximately $200 million. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we incurred $72 million in connection with this business plan, within our consolidated statement of operations. We do not expect additional restructuring charges associated with these activities to be significant.
We believe that we have resources to sufficiently fund our liquidity requirements over at least the next twelve months; however, given the uncertain economic environment and the leveling off of industry air distribution volume growth, we will continue to monitor our liquidity levels and take additional steps should we determine they are necessary. See “—Recent Events Impacting Our Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “—Senior Secured Credit Facilities.” During 2022 and 2023, we refinanced portions of our debt which resulted in higher interest rates than prior years, increasing our current and future interest expense.
In March 2022, we terminated our distribution agreement with a Travel Solutions customer located in Russia which impacted our revenue in 2022. In August 2022, Russia adopted legislation and related regulations that, effective October 30, 2022, require activities related to the development, creation and operation of automated information systems for processing domestic air transportation within the Russian Federation to be owned and operated by Russian residents or legal entities with no updates from or connection with systems abroad. A Travel Solutions customer of these types of services located in Russia ceased using our systems on that date. This legislation and these regulations have prohibited our ability to provide these services in Russia, which has negatively impacted and is expected to continue to negatively impact, our revenue and results.
In August 2022, we completed the acquisition of Conferma Limited ("Conferma"), a virtual payments technology company, to expand our investment in technology for the payments ecosystem in the travel industry. We acquired all of the outstanding stock and ownership interest of Conferma, for net cash considerations of $62 million and conversion of a pre-existing loan receivable into share capital. We have consolidated the results of Conferma from the date of acquisition into our Travel Solutions segment, which did not have a material impact on our results of operations. In February 2023, we sold 19% of the share capital of the direct parent company of Conferma to a third party for proceeds of $16 million resulting in a non-controlling interest from that date.
In May 2022, we acquired 8 million shares of Class A Common Stock, par value of $0.0001 per share, of Global Business Travel Group, Inc.(“GBT”) for an aggregate purchase price of $80 million. As of December 31, 2023, we continued to own these 8 million shares. We recognized an unrealized loss of $2 million and $26 million during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, from the investment in GBT. See Note 12. Fair Value Measurements for further details.
On February 28, 2022, we sold our suite of flight and crew management and optimization solutions, which represented our AirCentre airline operations portfolio within Travel Solution’s IT Solutions. We sold the AirCentre product portfolio, related
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technology and intellectual property for $392 million and recorded a pre-tax gain on sale of approximately $180 million (after-tax $112 million), in Other, net in our consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022. See Note 3. Acquisitions and Dispositions for further details.
Factors Affecting our Results
In addition to the "—Recent Developments Affecting our Results of Operations" above, the following is a discussion of other trends that we believe are additional significant opportunities and challenges currently impacting our business and industry. The discussion also includes management’s assessment of the effects these trends have had and are expected to have on our results of continuing operations. This information is not an exhaustive list of all of the factors that could affect our results and should be read in conjunction with the factors referred to in the sections entitled “Risk Factors,” “Forward-Looking Statements,” and "—Recent Developments Affecting our Results of Operations" included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Continued focus by travel suppliers on distribution methods and cost cutting
Changes in how airlines choose to distribute their content and pricing pressure during contract renegotiations may continue to subject our business to challenges. Travel suppliers continue to look for ways to decrease their costs and to increase their control over distribution. For example, certain travel suppliers have exerted influence on travel agencies with surcharges on bookings that are made through indirect channels, such as our GDS and/or have withheld ancillary fees data from their content available in our GDS. Additionally, the pricing strategy in some global regions for NDC bookings differs from historical patterns, which may impact our revenue growth, as well as incentive consideration, as the number of relative NDC bookings increase over the next few years. These changes may adversely affect our Travel Solutions contract renegotiations with suppliers that use alternative distribution channels. See "Risk Factors—Our Travel Solutions business is exposed to pricing pressure from travel suppliers." and "—Our travel supplier customers may experience financial instability or consolidation, pursue cost reductions, change their distribution model or undergo other changes."
These items have impacted the revenue of Travel Solutions, which recognizes revenue for airline ticket sales based on transaction volumes. Simultaneously, this focus on cost cutting and alternative distribution has also presented opportunities for Travel Solutions. Many airlines have turned to outside providers for key systems, process and industry expertise and other products that assist in their cost cutting initiatives in order to focus on their primary revenue generating activities.
Technology transformation and investments in modernizing our architecture

    
During 2023, we began to see benefits from our technology transformation within our Technology costs, and we expect that benefit to continue into 2024 and beyond. We expect continued investment in our technology transformation in 2024, which will have a significant impact on our financial results, but decline over prior year levels. We expect to finalize our re-platforming efforts to open source and cloud-based solutions during the year within this transformation program; however, we continuously focus on identifying improvements to our systems. As previously disclosed, our technology transformation has the goal of modernizing our architecture and is expected to provide us the framework and infrastructure for a more secure and stable architecture for our customers, provide new revenue opportunities, reduce our cost structure and help to improve sales of our software solutions. In 2024, we expect total capital expenditures to total approximately $100 million, primarily associated with capitalized software. Technology costs include the cost of our technology transformation and may be impacted by inflationary impacts in the future.
We expect to continue to benefit from higher margins in 2024 than would have been realized had we not undertaken our technology transformation efforts as we believe the technology transformation has and will help enable us to avoid capital expenditures that would have otherwise been required while also yielding lower cloud infrastructure costs. However, there are various risks associated with our technology transformation efforts, including not achieving the amount of anticipated cost savings, not completing the steps during their current projected time frame, or changing the approach leading to, among other things, additional changes in our mix of technology spend between operating expense and capitalization.
Geographic mix of travel bookings
The revenue recognized by our Travel Solutions business is affected by the mix between domestic and international travel reservation bookings and the related varying rates paid by airline suppliers. Due to our geographic concentration, our results of operations are particularly sensitive to factors affecting North America. For example, booking fees per transaction in North America have traditionally been lower than those in Europe. Additionally, volume growth in APAC has lagged behind that of other regions in recent years through 2022, but various countries re-opened in 2023 and drove higher bookings at a rate more similar to that of North America. As we continue to invest in our technology and expand the travel content and functionality available in our GDS, we anticipate that we will continue to grow global share. We invest for sustainable share growth, and in certain parts of APAC and Latin America, our share may be impacted by travel agency commercial arrangements we have declined to pursue due to credit risk and unfavorable economics. The geographic mix of our Direct Billable Bookings is summarized below.
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Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Direct Billable Bookings (1):
North America55 %56 %
EMEA17 %18 %
APAC19 %15 %
Latin America%11 %
Total100 %100 %
___________________________
(1) “Direct Billable Bookings” is the primary metric utilized by Travel Solutions to measure operating performance and includes bookings made through our GDS and through our equity method partners in cases where we are paid directly by the travel supplier.
Increasing interest rates and interest expense
The global capital markets experienced periods of volatility throughout 2022 and 2023 in response to geopolitical conflict, increases in the rate of inflation, and uncertainty regarding the path of U.S. monetary policy. During 2022 and 2023, we refinanced portions of our debt which resulted in interest rates higher than prior years, increasing current and future interest expense. We may decide to further refinance portions of our debt in 2024 and 2025 which, at current interest rates, could negatively impact our interest expense. Although interest rate increases have recently moderated, they continue to remain volatile, which could drive higher funding costs. Currently approximately 45% of our debt, net of cash and hedging impacts from interest rates swaps, is variable and impacted by changes in interest rates. Excluding the impact of the Senior Secured Term Loan due in 2028, approximately 28% of our debt is variable. See “Risk Factors—We are exposed to interest rate fluctuations.
Increasing travel agency incentive consideration
Travel agency incentive consideration is a large portion of Travel Solutions expenses. The vast majority of incentive consideration is tied to absolute booking volumes based on transactions such as flight segments booked. Incentive consideration, which often increases once a certain volume or percentage of bookings is met, is provided in two ways, according to the terms of the agreement: (i) on a periodic basis over the term of the contract and (ii) in some instances, up front at the inception or modification of contracts, which is capitalized and amortized over the expected life of the contract.
Consideration on a per booking basis declined in 2021 as compared to the prior year, due to regional mix and increased leisure bookings over business travel. In 2022 and 2023, consideration on a per booking basis increased as volumes reached and exceeded volume or percentage thresholds, which we expect to continue in 2024. We remain focused on managing incentive consideration and expect growth in the near term. Although incentive rate increases may continue to impact margins, we expect these increases to be offset by growth in Travel Solutions revenue. This expectation is based in part on anticipated increases in international travel, which would favorably impact our revenue rates, along with our continuing to offer value added services and content to travel buyers, such as the Sabre Red Workspace, a SaaS product that provides a simplified interface and enhanced travel agency workflow and productivity tools.
Increasing importance of LCC/hybrids
LCC/hybrids have become a significant segment of the air travel market, stimulating demand for air travel through low fares. LCC/hybrids have traditionally relied on direct distribution for the majority of their bookings. However, as these LCC/hybrids are evolving, many are increasing their distribution through indirect channels to expand their offering into higher yield markets and to higher yield customers, such as business and international travelers. Other LCC/hybrids, especially start up carriers, may choose not to distribute through the GDS until wider distribution is desired. We expect to make additional investments to address the LCC space and continue to grow upmarket with a more competitive offering.
Shift to SaaS and hosted solutions by airlines and hotels to manage their daily operations
Historically, large travel suppliers built custom in-house software and applications for their business process needs. In response to a desire for more flexible systems given increasingly complex and constantly changing technological requirements, reduced IT budgets and increased focus on cost efficiency, many travel suppliers turned to third party solutions providers for many of their key technologies. We believe that significant revenue opportunity remains in this outsourcing trend, as legacy in-house systems continue to migrate and upgrade to third party systems. However, under the SaaS and hosted solutions revenue model, revenue recognition may be delayed due to longer implementation schedules for larger suppliers. The SaaS and hosted models’ centralized deployment also allows us to save time and money by reducing maintenance and implementation tasks and lowering operating costs.
Growing demand for continued technology improvements in the fragmented hotel industry
Most of the hospitality industry is highly fragmented. Independent hotels and small to medium sized chains (groups of less than 300 properties) comprise a majority of hotel properties and available hotel rooms, with global and regional chains comprising the balance. Hotels use a number of different technology systems to distribute and market their products and operate efficiently. We offer technology solutions to all segments of the hospitality industry. Our SynXis Central Reservation System
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integrates critical hospitality systems to optimize distribution, operations, retailing and guest experience via one scalable, flexible and intelligent platform. As these markets grow, we believe both independent and enterprise hotel owners and operators will continue to seek increased connectivity and integrated solutions to ensure access to global travelers. We anticipate that this will contribute to the continued growth of Hospitality Solutions, which is ultimately dependent upon these hoteliers accepting and utilizing our products and services.
Components of Revenues and Expenses
Revenues
Travel Solutions generates revenues from distribution activities through direct billable bookings processed on our GDS, adjusted for estimated cancellations of those bookings. Travel Solutions also generates revenues from IT solutions activities from its product offerings including reservation systems for full-service and low-cost carriers, commercial and operations products, professional services, agency solutions and booking data. Additionally, Travel Solutions generates revenue through software licensing and maintenance fees. Recognition of license fees upon delivery has previously resulted and will continue to result in periodic fluctuations in revenue recognized.
Hospitality Solutions generates revenue through upfront solution fees and recurring usage-based fees for the use of our software solutions hosted on secure platforms or deployed through our SaaS and through other professional service fees including Digital Experience (“DX”). Certain professional service fees are discrete sales opportunities that may have a high degree of variability from period to period, and we cannot guarantee that we will have such fees in the future consistent with prior periods.
Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs
Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, incurred by Travel Solutions and Hospitality Solutions consists primarily of costs associated with the delivery and distribution of our products and services and includes employee-related costs for our delivery, customer operations and call center teams as well as allocated overhead such as facilities and other support costs. Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, for Travel Solutions also includes incentive consideration expense representing payments or other consideration to travel agencies for reservations made on our GDS which accrue on a monthly basis. Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, also includes amortization of upfront incentive consideration representing upfront payments or other consideration provided to travel agencies for reservations made on our GDS which are capitalized and amortized over the expected life of the contract. The technology costs excluded from Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, are presented separately below.
Corporate cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, includes certain expenses such as stock-based compensation, restructuring charges and other corporate related items including labor and professional services that are not identifiable with either of our segments.
Depreciation and amortization included in cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, is associated with capitalized implementation costs and intangible assets associated with contracts, supplier and distributor agreements purchased through acquisitions.
Technology Costs
Technology costs incurred by Travel Solutions and Hospitality Solutions consist of expenses related to third-party providers and employee-related costs to operate technology operations including hosting, third-party software, and other costs associated with the maintenance and minor enhancement of our technology. Technology costs also include costs associated with our technology transformation efforts. Technology costs are less variable in nature and therefore may not correlate with related changes in revenue.
Corporate technology costs include certain expenses such as stock-based compensation, restructuring charges and other corporate related items including labor and professional services that are not identifiable with either of our segments.
Depreciation and amortization included in technology costs is associated with software developed for internal use that supports our products, assets supporting our technology platform, businesses and systems and intangible assets for technology purchased through acquisitions.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist of professional service fees, certain settlement charges or reimbursements, costs to defend legal disputes, provision for expected credit losses, other overhead costs, and personnel-related expenses, including stock-based compensation, for employees engaged in sales, sales support, account management and who administratively support the business in finance, legal, human resources, information technology and communications.
Depreciation and amortization included in selling, general and administrative expenses is associated with property and equipment, acquired customer relationships, trademarks and brand names purchased through acquisitions or established through the take private transaction in 2007, which includes a remaining useful life of 13 years as of December 31, 2023 for trademarks and brand names.
Intersegment Transactions
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We account for significant intersegment transactions as if the transactions were with third parties, that is, at estimated current market prices. Hospitality Solutions pays fees to Travel Solutions for hotel stays booked through our GDS.
Key Metrics
“Direct billable bookings” and “passengers boarded” are the primary metrics utilized by Travel Solutions to measure operating performance. Travel Solutions generates distribution revenue for each direct billable booking, which includes bookings made through our GDS (e.g., Air, and Lodging, Ground and Sea ("LGS")) and through our equity method investments in cases where we are paid directly by the travel supplier. Air bookings are presented net of bookings cancelled within the period presented. Travel Solutions also recognizes IT solutions revenue from recurring usage-based fees for passengers boarded. The primary metric utilized by Hospitality Solutions is booking transactions processed through the Sabre Hospitality Solutions SynXis Central Reservation System (the “Central Reservation System”). These key metrics allow management to analyze customer volume over time for each of our product lines to monitor industry trends and analyze performance. We believe that these key metrics are useful for investors and other third parties as indicators of our financial performance and industry trends. While these metrics are based on what we believe to be reasonable estimates of our transaction counts for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges associated with their measurement. In addition, we are continually seeking to improve our estimates of these metrics, and these estimates may change due to improvements or changes in our methodology.
The following table sets forth these key metrics for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,Year-over-Year % Change
 20232022202120232022
Travel Solutions     
Direct Billable Bookings - Air302,656 260,804 183,629 16.0 %42.0 %
Direct Billable Bookings - LGS52,053 41,038 23,384 26.8 %75.5 %
Distribution Total Direct Billable Bookings354,709 301,842 207,013 17.5 %45.8 %
IT Solutions Passengers Boarded688,501 637,438 423,838 8.0 %50.4 %
Hospitality Solutions
Central Reservations System Transactions122,142 111,459 91,802 9.6 %21.4 %

Definitions of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We have included both financial measures compiled in accordance with GAAP and certain non-GAAP financial measures in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including Adjusted Operating Income (Loss), Adjusted Net Loss from continuing operations ("Adjusted Net Loss"), Adjusted EBITDA, Free Cash Flow and ratios based on these financial measures.
We define Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) as operating income (loss) adjusted for equity method income (loss), impairment and related charges, acquisition-related amortization, restructuring and other costs, acquisition-related costs, litigation costs, net, and stock-based compensation.
We define Adjusted Net Loss as net loss attributable to common stockholders adjusted for loss from discontinued operations, net of tax, net (loss) income attributable to noncontrolling interests, preferred stock dividends, impairment and related charges, acquisition-related amortization, restructuring and other costs, loss on extinguishment of debt, net, other, net, acquisition-related costs, litigation costs, net, stock-based compensation, and the tax impact of adjustments.
We define Adjusted EBITDA as loss from continuing operations adjusted for depreciation and amortization of property and equipment, amortization of capitalized implementation costs, acquisition-related amortization, impairment and related charges, restructuring and other costs, interest expense, net, other, net, loss on extinguishment of debt, net, acquisition-related costs, litigation costs, net, stock-based compensation and the remaining provision (benefit) for income taxes.
We define Free Cash Flow as cash provided by (used in) operating activities reduced by cash used in additions to property and equipment.
We define Adjusted Net Loss from continuing operations per share as Adjusted Net Loss divided by diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding.
These non-GAAP financial measures are key metrics used by management and our board of directors to monitor our ongoing core operations because historical results have been significantly impacted by events that are unrelated to our core operations as a result of changes to our business and the regulatory environment. We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures are used by investors, analysts and other interested parties as measures of financial performance and to evaluate our ability to service debt obligations, fund capital expenditures, fund our investments in technology transformation, and meet working capital requirements. We also believe that Adjusted Operating Income (Loss), Adjusted Net Loss and Adjusted EBITDA
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assist investors in company-to-company and period-to-period comparisons by excluding differences caused by variations in capital structures (affecting interest expense), tax positions and the impact of depreciation and amortization expense.
Adjusted Operating Income (Loss), Adjusted Net Loss, Adjusted EBITDA, Free Cash Flow and ratios based on these financial measures are not recognized terms under GAAP. These non-GAAP financial measures and ratios based on them are unaudited and have important limitations as analytical tools, and should not be viewed in isolation and do not purport to be alternatives to net income as indicators of operating performance or cash flows from operating activities as measures of liquidity. These non-GAAP financial measures and ratios based on them exclude some, but not all, items that affect net income or cash flows from operating activities and these measures may vary among companies. Our use of these measures has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider them in isolation or as substitutes for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
these non-GAAP financial measures exclude certain recurring, non-cash charges such as stock-based compensation expense and amortization of acquired intangible assets;
although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized may have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect cash requirements for such replacements;
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect amortization of capitalized implementation costs associated with our revenue contracts, which may require future working capital or cash needs in the future;
Adjusted Operating Income (Loss), Adjusted Net Loss and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the interest expense or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our indebtedness;
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect tax payments that may represent a reduction in cash available to us;
Free Cash Flow removes the impact of accrual-basis accounting on asset accounts and non-debt liability accounts, and does not reflect the cash requirements necessary to service the principal payments on our indebtedness; and
other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate Adjusted Operating Income (Loss), Adjusted Net Loss, Adjusted EBITDA or Free Cash Flow differently, which reduces their usefulness as comparative measures.
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Non-GAAP Financial Measures
The following table sets forth the reconciliation of Net Loss attributable to common stockholders to Adjusted Net Loss from continuing operations, Operating Income (Loss) to Adjusted Operating Income (Loss), and Loss from continuing operations to Adjusted EBITDA (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(541,865)$(456,833)$(950,071)
(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of tax(308)679 2,532 
Net (loss) income attributable to non-controlling interests(1)
(332)2,670 2,162 
Preferred stock dividends
14,257 21,385 21,602 
Loss from continuing operations(528,248)(432,099)(923,775)
Adjustments:   
Impairment and related charges(2)
— 5,146 — 
Acquisition-related amortization(3a)
40,237 51,254 64,144 
Restructuring and other costs(5)
72,096 14,500 (7,608)
Loss on extinguishment of debt, net108,577 4,473 13,070 
Other, net(4)
(13,751)(136,645)1,748 
Acquisition-related costs(6)
2,336 6,854 6,744 
Litigation costs, net(7)
12,838 31,706 22,262 
Stock-based compensation
52,015 82,872 120,892 
Tax impact of adjustments(8)
74,203 847 (6,867)
Adjusted Net Loss from continuing operations$(179,697)$(371,092)$(709,390)
Adjusted Net Loss from continuing operations per share$(0.52)$(1.14)$(2.21)
Diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding346,567 326,742 320,922 
Operating income (loss)$47,143 $(261,060)$(665,487)
Add back: 
Equity method income (loss)2,042 686 (264)
Impairment and related charges(2)
— 5,146 — 
Acquisition-related amortization(3a)
40,237 51,254 64,144 
Restructuring and other costs(5)
72,096 14,500 (7,608)
Acquisition-related costs(6)
2,336 6,854 6,744 
Litigation costs, net(7)
12,838 31,706 22,262 
Stock-based compensation52,015 82,872 120,892 
Adjusted Operating Income (Loss)$228,707 $(68,042)$(459,317)
Loss from continuing operations$(528,248)$(432,099)$(923,775)
Adjustments:
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment(3b)
85,408 96,397 163,291 
Amortization of capitalized implementation costs(3c)
23,031 36,982 34,750 
Acquisition-related amortization(3a)
40,237 51,254 64,144 
Impairment and related charges(2)
— 5,146 — 
Restructuring and other costs(5)
72,096 14,500 (7,608)
Interest expense, net447,878 295,231 257,818 
Other, net(4)
(13,751)(136,645)1,748 
Loss on extinguishment of debt, net108,577 4,473 13,070 
Acquisition-related costs(6)
2,336 6,854 6,744 
Litigation costs, net(7)
12,838 31,706 22,262 
Stock-based compensation52,015 82,872 120,892 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes34,729 8,666 (14,612)
Adjusted EBITDA$337,146 $65,337 $(261,276)
The following tables set forth the reconciliation of Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) to Operating Income (Loss) in our statement of operations and Adjusted EBITDA to Loss from Continuing Operations in our statement of operations by business segment (in thousands):
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Year Ended December 31, 2023
Travel
Solutions

Hospitality
Solutions
CorporateTotal
Adjusted Operating Income (Loss)$474,969 $(11,286)$(234,976)$228,707 
Less:
Equity method income2,042 — — 2,042 
Acquisition-related amortization(3a)
— — 40,237 40,237 
Restructuring and other costs(5)
— — 72,096 72,096 
Acquisition-related costs(6)
— — 2,336 2,336 
Litigation costs, net(7)
— — 12,838 12,838 
Stock-based compensation— — 52,015 52,015 
Operating income (loss)$472,927 $(11,286)$(414,498)$47,143 
Adjusted EBITDA558,183 13,212 (234,249)337,146 
Less:
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment(3b)
65,814 18,867 727 85,408 
Amortization of capitalized implementation costs(3c)
17,400 5,631 — 23,031 
Acquisition-related amortization(3a)
— — 40,237 40,237 
Restructuring and other costs(5)
— — 72,096 72,096 
Acquisition-related costs(6)
— — 2,336 2,336 
Litigation costs, net(7)
— — 12,838 12,838 
Stock-based compensation— — 52,015 52,015 
Equity method income2,042 — — 2,042 
Operating income (loss)$472,927 $(11,286)$(414,498)$47,143 
Interest expense, net(447,878)
Other, net(4)
13,751 
Loss on extinguishment of debt, net(108,577)
Equity method income2,042 
Provision for income taxes(34,729)
Loss from continuing operations$(528,248)
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Year Ended December 31, 2022
Travel
Solutions
Hospitality
Solutions
CorporateTotal
Adjusted Operating Income (Loss)$213,290 $(51,579)$(229,753)$(68,042)
Less:
Equity method income686 — — 686 
Impairment and related charges(2)
— — 5,146 5,146 
Acquisition-related amortization(3a)
— — 51,254 51,254 
Restructuring and other costs(5)
— — 14,500 14,500 
Acquisition-related costs(6)
— — 6,854 6,854 
Litigation costs, net(7)
— — 31,706 31,706 
Stock-based compensation— — 82,872 82,872 
Operating income (loss)$212,604 $(51,579)$(422,085)$(261,060)
Adjusted EBITDA$323,803 $(29,794)$(228,672)$65,337 
Less:
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment(3b)
78,601 16,715 1,081 96,397 
Amortization of capitalized implementation costs(3c)
31,912 5,070 — 36,982 
Acquisition-related amortization(3a)
— — 51,254 51,254 
Impairment and related charges(2)
— — 5,146 5,146 
Restructuring and other costs(5)
— — 14,500 14,500 
Acquisition-related costs(6)
— — 6,854 6,854 
Litigation costs, net(7)
— — 31,706 31,706 
Stock-based compensation— — 82,872 82,872 
Equity method income686 — — 686 
Operating income (loss)$212,604 $(51,579)$(422,085)$(261,060)
Interest expense, net(295,231)
Other, net(4)
136,645 
Loss on extinguishment of debt(4,473)
Equity method income686 
Provision for income taxes(8,666)
Loss from continuing operations$(432,099)
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Year Ended December 31, 2021
Travel
Solutions
Hospitality
Solutions
CorporateTotal
Adjusted Operating Loss$(222,679)$(39,806)$(196,832)$(459,317)
Less:
Equity method loss(264)— — (264)
Acquisition-related amortization(3a)
— — 64,144 64,144 
Restructuring and other costs(6)
— — (7,608)(7,608)
Acquisition-related costs(6)
— — 6,744 6,744 
Litigation costs, net(7)
— — 22,262 22,262 
Stock-based compensation— — 120,892 120,892 
Operating loss$(222,415)$(39,806)$(403,266)$(665,487)
Adjusted EBITDA$(52,006)$(13,452)$(195,818)$(261,276)
Less:
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment(3b)
140,231 22,046 1,014 163,291 
Amortization of capitalized implementation costs(3c)
30,442 4,308 — 34,750 
Acquisition-related amortization(3a)
— — 64,144 64,144 
Restructuring and other costs(5)
— — (7,608)(7,608)
Acquisition-related costs(6)
— — 6,744 6,744 
Litigation costs, net(7)
— — 22,262 22,262 
Stock-based compensation— — 120,892 120,892 
Equity method loss(264)— — (264)
Operating loss$(222,415)$(39,806)$(403,266)$(665,487)
Interest expense, net(257,818)
Other, net(4)
(1,748)
Loss on extinguishment of debt(13,070)
Equity method loss(264)
Benefit for income taxes14,612 
Loss from continuing operations$(923,775)

The following tables present information from our statements of cash flows and set forth the reconciliation of Free Cash Flow to cash provided by operating activities, the most directly comparable GAAP measure (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Cash provided by (used in) operating activities$56,239 $(276,458)$(414,654)
Cash (used in) provided by investing activities(109,980)173,977 (29,428)
Cash used in financing activities(94,219)(75,370)(50,558)
Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Cash provided by (used in) operating activities$56,239 $(276,458)$(414,654)
Additions to property and equipment(87,423)(69,494)(54,302)
Free Cash Flow$(31,184)$(345,952)$(468,956)
________________________________
(1)Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests represents an adjustment to include earnings allocated to noncontrolling interests held in (i) Sabre Travel Network Middle East of 40%, (ii) Sabre Seyahat Dagitim Sistemleri A.S. of 40%, (iii) Sabre Travel Network Lanka (Pte) Ltd of 40%, (iv) Sabre Bulgaria of 40%, and (v) FERMR Holdings Limited (the direct parent of Conferma) of 19%.
(2)Impairment and related charges in 2022 represents a $5 million impairment charge associated with the impact of regulatory changes in Russia on the future recoverability of certain assets.
(3)Depreciation and amortization expenses:
a.Acquisition-related amortization represents amortization of intangible assets from the take-private transaction in 2007 as well as intangibles associated with acquisitions since that date.
b.Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment includes software developed for internal use as well as amortization of contract acquisition costs.
c.Amortization of capitalized implementation costs represents amortization of upfront costs to implement new customer contracts under our SaaS and hosted revenue model.
(4)Other, net includes a $180 million gain on the sale of AirCentre during 2022, the impacts of fair value adjustments of our GBT investment in 2023 and 2022, and a $15 million gain on sale of equity securities in 2021. In addition, 2022 and 2021 include pension settlement charges
34


and all periods presented include foreign exchange gains and losses related to the remeasurement of foreign currency denominated balances included in our consolidated balance sheets into the relevant functional currency. See Note 3. Acquisitions and Dispositions to our consolidated financial statements regarding the AirCentre sale and Note 17. Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans to our consolidated financial statements regarding the pension settlements.
(5)Restructuring and other costs in 2023 primarily represents charges associated with our cost reduction plan implemented in the second quarter of 2023. See Note 5. Restructuring Activities to our consolidated financial statements. During 2022, charges, and adjustments to those charges, were recorded associated with planning and implementing business restructuring activities, including costs associated with third party consultants advising on our business structure and strategy.
(6)Acquisition-related costs represent fees and expenses incurred associated with acquisition and disposition-related activities.
(7)Litigation costs, net represent charges associated with antitrust litigation and other foreign non-income tax contingency matters. See Note 18. Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements.
(8)The tax impact of adjustments includes the tax effect of each separate adjustment based on the statutory tax rate for the jurisdiction(s) in which the adjustment was taxable or deductible, and the tax effect of items that relate to tax specific financial transactions, tax law changes, uncertain tax positions, valuation allowances and other items.
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our consolidated statement of operations data for each of the periods presented (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Revenue$2,907,738 $2,537,015 $1,688,875 
Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs1,189,606 1,040,819 691,451 
Technology costs1,036,596 1,096,097 1,052,833 
Selling, general and administrative634,393 661,159 610,078 
Operating income (loss)47,143 (261,060)(665,487)
Interest expense, net(447,878)(295,231)(257,818)
Loss on debt extinguishment, net (108,577)(4,473)(13,070)
Equity method income (loss)2,042 686 (264)
Other, net13,751 136,645 (1,748)
Loss from continuing operations before income taxes(493,519)(423,433)(938,387)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes34,729 8,666 (14,612)
Loss from continuing operations$(528,248)$(432,099)$(923,775)
Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
Revenue
 Year Ended December 31,
 20232022Change
 (Amounts in thousands)  
Travel Solutions$2,642,077 $2,311,275 $330,802 14 %
Hospitality Solutions304,169 254,620 49,549 19 %
Total segment revenue2,946,246 2,565,895 380,351 15 %
Eliminations(38,508)(28,880)(9,628)33 %
Total revenue$2,907,738 $2,537,015 $370,723 15 %
Travel Solutions—Revenue increased $331 million, or 14%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year, primarily due to:
a $434 million, or 27%, increase in distribution revenue, which was primarily due to a 18% increase in direct billable bookings to 355 million and favorable rate impacts from improved international and corporate bookings; and

an $104 million, or 15%, decrease in IT solutions revenue consisting of approximately $100 million decrease as a result of de-migrations, primarily due to changes in Russian law and impacts of termination fees in both periods from certain carriers and a $2 million decline in the recognition of previously deferred revenue comprised of a $27 million decrease primarily due to a change in facts and circumstances associated with a Russian carrier in the prior year, offset by $25 million recognized in the current year, which we do not expect to reoccur. In addition, we incurred a $36 million decrease due to the sale of our AirCentre portfolio on February 28, 2022. These decreases were partially offset by a $28 million increase in revenue due to an 8% increase in passengers boarded to 689 million.
Hospitality Solutions—Revenue increased $50 million, or 19%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by a $48 million increase in SynXis Software and Services revenue due to an
35


increase in transaction volumes of 10% to 122 million driven by new customer deployments and a favorable mix within our distribution channels. Additionally, DX revenue increased by $2 million.
Cost of Revenue, excluding technology costs
 Year Ended December 31,  
 20232022Change
 (Amounts in thousands)  
Travel Solutions$1,038,628 $894,556 $144,072 16 %
Hospitality Solutions146,820 126,543 20,277 16 %
Eliminations(38,508)(28,880)(9,628)33 %
Total segment cost of revenue, excluding technology costs1,146,940 992,219 154,721 16 %
Corporate18,463 8,624 9,839 114 %
Depreciation and amortization24,203 39,976 (15,773)(39)%
Total cost of revenue, excluding technology costs$1,189,606 $1,040,819 $148,787 14 %

Travel Solutions—Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, increased $144 million, or 16%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by a $185 million increase in incentive consideration due to higher transaction volume as well as an increase in rates. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in labor and professional services costs partially due to our cost reduction plan and the sale of AirCentre.
Hospitality Solutions—Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, increased $20 million, or 16%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year primarily due to costs associated with increased transaction volumes.

    
Corporate—Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, increased $10 million, or 114%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 primarily due to a $13 million restructuring charge associated with the reduction of our workforce in the current period. This increase was partially offset by a $3 million decrease in labor and professional services costs due to our cost reduction plan.
Depreciation and Amortization—Cost of revenue, excluding technology costs, decreased $16 million, or 39%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 primarily due to the completion of amortization associated with certain customer implementations.
Technology Costs
 Year Ended December 31,  
 20232022Change
 (Amounts in thousands)  
Travel Solutions$863,888 $910,219 $(46,331)(5)%
Hospitality Solutions112,024 122,476 (10,452)(9)%
Corporate60,684 63,402 (2,718)(4)%
Total technology costs$1,036,596 $1,096,097 $(59,501)(5)%
Travel Solutions—Technology costs decreased $46 million, or 5%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year. The decrease was primarily due to a $28 million decrease in technology costs due to cost savings related to our mainframe offloads and data migrations. Additionally, depreciation and amortization decreased by $12 million primarily due to the sale of our AirCentre portfolio and the completion of amortization of capitalized internal use software, and labor and professional services decreased by $8 million due to our cost reduction plan, which was partially offset by increased costs to support our technology transformation and strategic growth initiatives.
Hospitality Solutions—Technology costs decreased $10 million, or 9%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year primarily due to a $17 million decrease in labor and professional services driven by our cost reduction plan. This decrease was partially offset by a $6 million increase in technology costs associated with our technology transformation initiatives, including the migration of SynXis to the cloud, and an increase in transaction volumes.
Corporate—Technology costs decreased $3 million, or 4%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year primarily due to an $11 million decrease in depreciation and amortization due to the completion of amortization of technology assets from prior acquisitions, a $10 million decrease in stock-based compensation primarily due to forfeitures of unvested shares, and an $8 million decrease in labor and professional services driven by our cost reduction plan. These decreases were partially offset by a $27 million restructuring charge associated with the reduction of our workforce in the current period.
36


Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
 Year Ended December 31,  
 20232022Change
 (Amounts in thousands)  
Travel Solutions$248,633 $260,318 $(11,685)(4)%
Hospitality Solutions50,939 52,116 (1,177)(2)%
Corporate334,821 348,725 (13,904)(4)%
Total selling, general and administrative expenses$634,393 $661,159 $(26,766)(4)%
Travel Solutions—Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $12 million, or 4%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year. The decrease was driven by a $18 million decrease in labor and professional services due to our cost reduction plan. This decrease was partially offset by a $4 million increase in the provision for credit losses and a $2 million increase due to investment in our internal business systems.
Hospitality Solutions—Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $1 million, or 2%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year primarily due to a $3 million decrease in labor and professional services driven by our cost reduction plan, partially offset by a $2 million increase in the provision for credit losses, primarily due to an unfavorable fluctuation to provision reductions in the prior year.

Corporate—Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $14 million, or 4%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year. This decrease was partially driven by a decrease of $19 million in stock-based compensation primarily due to forfeitures of unvested shares, a $17 million decrease in legal costs resulting from ongoing litigation, a $15 million decrease due to a litigation reserve recorded in the prior year, and a decrease in other ongoing business expenses. These decreases were partially offset by a $26 million restructuring charge for severance and related benefits costs associated with the reduction of our workforce in 2023, an $11 million charge associated with a tax litigation matter, and a $5 million increase in labor and professional services costs.
Interest expense, net
 Year Ended December 31,  
 20232022Change
 (Amounts in thousands)  
Interest expense, net$447,878 $295,231 $152,647 52 %
Interest expense increased $153 million, or 52%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in the prior year primarily due to higher interest rates on our term loans and additional interest incurred in connection with the financing activities that have occurred during 2023. This increase was partially offset by the impact of our interest rate swaps. See Note 10. Debt for further details these debt transactions and Note 11. Derivatives for further details regarding our interest rate swaps.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt, net
We recognized a loss on extinguishment of debt of $109 million during the year ended December 31, 2023, including a loss on extinguishment of debt of $121 million as a result of the financing activity that occurred in the third quarter of 2023, partially offset by a gain on extinguishment of debt of $13 million as a result of the financing activity that occurred in the second quarter of 2023. We recognized a loss on extinguishment of debt of $4 million during the year ended December 31, 2022 as a result of the refinancing that occurred in 2022. See Note 10. Debt for further details regarding these debt transactions